Skip past header information
Skip USGS links group
U.S. Geological Survey - science for a changing world
MWRA Logo and link to MWRA Home Page  USCG Logo and link to USCG Home Page

Woods Hole Science Center

End of USGS links group

Time-series photographs of the sea floor in western Massachusetts Bay, 1996 - 2005 Skip navigational side bar


Notes on Individual Time Series

This section includes a list of comments for each set of time-series photographs. The comments provide explanations for some of the characteristics of the photographs, identification of some of the animals, and descriptions of some of the changes observed on the sea floor. To quickly scan the entire time series using the movie player Imagen or Quicktime, drag the slider with the mouse.

Time-series 480 (October 1, 1996 - February 9, 1997)

  • The pink coating on the cobbles is a calcareous algae.
  • The yellow coating on cobbles is most likely an encrusting sponge.
  • Small fish, identified as cunner, appear throughout the time-series, sometimes in large numbers (for example, frame 74). In some frames, these fish are close to the camera lens and thus appear larger and more dense than when they are near the sea floor (for example, frame 93).
  • Resuspension events begin in frames 48, 118, 286, 407, 480, and 747.
  • The resuspension event that begins in frame 118 (October 19, 1996) was the tenth largest storm to occur in Massachusetts Bay between 1990 and 2006, based on integrated bottom wave stress (Butman and others, in press).
  • A cancer crab appears in frame 233.
  • The individual photographs are not well aligned between frames 285 and frame 400 and thus the bottom appears to jump between frames.
  • Biological growth begins to appear on the camera lens around frame 480 resulting in brownish spots that increase in size during the rest of the deployment and partially obscure the sea floor. The illumination of the sea floor also decreases most likely caused by biological growth on the camera strobe.
  • An excavation of pebbles appears between frames 542 and 543 at top right of the photograph.

Time-series 495 (February 17, 1997 - June 10, 1997)

  • Frames 2-6 are overexposed.
  • Pebbles, cobbles, and shells were moved throughout the time series, even during periods of weak currents, most likely by biological activity.
  • The pink coating on the cobbles is a calcareous algae.
  • A storm begins March 31(frame 259). This is the eighth largest storm, ranked by bottom wave stress, that occurred between 1990 and 2006 (Butman and others, in press). Cobbles on sea floor were rolled over and were rearranged (compare frames 257 and 300). The tripod was moved slightly during this event changing the field of view of the camera.
  • A storm begins April 19 (frame 369). This is the 19th largest storm, ranked by bottom wave stress, that occurred between 1990 and 2006 (Butman and others, in press). Cobbles on sea floor were rolled over and were rearranged (compare frames 368 and 390). The tripod was moved slightly during this event, changing the field of view of the camera.
  • A lobster appears in a depression in frame 443 and is observed intermittently until the end of the deployment (frame 681). Rearrangement of the pebbles and no sediment accumulation in this area appears to be a result of its activity.
  • Resuspension events begin in frame 402 and frame 654.
  • Sea scallops are observed in frame 640 until 683.

Time-series 501 (June 10, 1997 - September 23, 1997)

  • Pebbles, cobbles, and shells were moved throughout the time series, even during periods of weak currents, most likely by biological activity.
  • The pink coating on the cobbles is a calcareous algae.
  • A flounder appears in frames 172-173, 179, 185, 538, and 762-764.
  • Small fish, identified as cunner, appear throughout the time series, sometimes in large numbers (for example, frame 492).
  • The horizontal stripe across image 320 is a digitizing error.
  • A resuspension event begins in frame 577.

Times-series 507 (September 23, 1997 - November 12, 1997)

  • Pebbles, cobbles, and shells were moved throughout the time series, even during periods of weak currents, most likely by biological activity.
  • The pink coating on the cobbles is a calcareous algae.
  • A large starfish is observed in frames 032, 042-043.
  • Small fish, identified as cunner, appear throughout the time series.
  • A flounder is observed in frame 018.
  • A lobster appears in frame 060.
  • A storm begins in frames 162, 202, 234, and 268.
  • A sea scallop appears in frames 242-295.
  • An ocean pout appears in frame 265.
  • A cancer crab appears in frame 282.

Times-series 516 (February 10, 1998 - June 10, 1998)

  • Pebbles, cobbles, and shells were moved throughout the time series, even during periods of weak currents, most likely by biological activity (for example, frame 212-213, 441-442, and 648-649).
  • The pink coating on the cobbles is a calcareous algae.
  • The yellow coating is most likely an encrusting sponge.
  • Resuspension events begin in frames 060, 101, 268, 388, 409, 473, and 577. The compass slides along the mounting bracket and out of the camera field of view during the event in frames 061-062. The tripod was moved slightly during the event, in frames 270-272, changing the field of view of the camera.
  • The compass slides along the support bar and in and out of the field of view during the deployment (for example, frame 60 and frame 120).
  • An ocean pout appears in frames 127 and 462-464.
  • Sea urchins appear throughout, for example, frames 329-339.

Times-series 530 (June 17, 1998 - September 30, 1998)

  • The pink coating on the cobbles is a calcareous algae.
  • The compass does not swivel freely and sticks in one position (for example, frames 206 and 342).
  • A sculpin appears in frame 250.
  • A flounder appears in frames 099-100 and 306.
  • A starfish appears in frames 298-303.
  • Sea urchins appear throughout the time series, for example, frames 304-305.
  • The camera lens and compass gradually become fouled, beginning around frame 400. The illumination also decreases; this most likely is caused by biological growth on the strobe.
  • There are no temperature or beam attenuation data after frame 463.

Times-series 540 (September 30, 1999 - February 7, 1999)

  • Pebbles, cobbles, and shells were moved throughout the time series, even during periods of weak currents, most likely by biological activity.
  • The pink coating on the cobbles is a calcareous algae.
  • Sea urchins appear throughout the time series, for example, frames 208-212 and 419-429.
  • Resuspension events begin in frames 069, 189, 348, 576, and 646.
  • The beam attenuation gradually increases, most likely as a result of biological fouling of the optical windows of the transmissometer.

Times-series 552 (February 10, 1999 - May 7, 1999)

  • The pink coating on the cobbles is a calcareous algae.
  • A starfish appears in frames 079 - 091.
  • Sea urchins appear throughout the time series, for example, 215-234.
  • Resuspension events begin in frames 060, 089, 146, 172, 237, and 274.
  • A lobster appears in frame 401.
  • The sea floor is difficult to see during a period of high beam attenuation that is not associated with local sediment resuspension (frames 378-460).

Times-series 569 (May 11, 1999 - September 15, 1999)

  • Pebbles, cobbles, and shells were moved throughout the time series, even during periods of weak currents, most likely by biological activity.
  • The pink coating on the cobbles is a calcareous algae.
  • An excavation of cobbles occurs in frames 109-111 (just to the left of the compass and beneath the support bar). On the basis of other time series, this disturbance most likely is caused by a burrowing crab.
  • A hermit crab appears in frames 074, 098, 213, and 219.
  • An ocean pout appears in frames 105, 163, and 225.
  • Sea urchins appear in frames 046, 174, 209-216, and others.
  • Biological growth (most likely hydroids or hydrozoans) on the compass is noticeable by frame 352 and increases until the end of the time series.
  • There are no current data after frame 376.
  • A flounder appears in frame 398.
  • The illumination of the sea floor begins to decrease around frame 430, mostly likely as a result of biological growth on the strobe.
  • The beam attenuation increases gradually beginning around frame 500, most likely as a result of biological growth on the transmissometer optics.
  • Resuspension events begin in frames 622 and 673.

Times-series 591 (September 26, 1999 - December 10, 1999)

  • The film has a reddish tint that makes the sea floor difficult to see.
  • Owing to the red tint, the alignment of the frames is poor, and the images were moved back and forth between some frames.
  • The current data stop at frame 141; the pressure data begin in frame 177.
  • A resuspension event begins in frame 403.

Time-series 625 (May 13, 2000 - September 11, 2000)

  • There are no pressure data until frame 497. Current data ends at frame 497 and temperature at frame 505, and beam attenuation at 528.
  • Pebbles, cobbles, and shells were moved throughout the time series, even during periods of weak currents, most likely by biological activity.
  • Small fish observed from the beginning of the deployment until about frame 170 are most likely cunner.
  • A resuspension event begins in frame 172
  • A cancer crab excavates a burrow in frames 203-204.
  • An ocean pout appears in frames 104 and 358.
  • A flounder appears in frames 384-385 and 506.
  • A scuplin appears in frame 338, 367, 408, 432, 540, and 592.
  • The illumination of the sea floor decreases beginning around frame 400, most likely as a result of biological growth on the camera strobe.
  • A lobster appears in frame 414.
  • White objects appear on the right side of frames 451-452.
  • A sea scallop appears in frames 463-671.

Times-series 638 (February 14, 2001 - May 24, 2001)

  • A major resuspension event begins in frame 616 (March 5, 2001). This was the fourth largest storm to occur in Massachusetts Bay between 1990 and 2006, based on integrated bottom wave stress (Butman and others, in press). The line spills from the rope canister during this event (frame 128) and is observed on the sea floor later in the time series (frame 243-280). The compass detaches from the mounting bar. The tripod was moved slightly during this storm, changing the field of view of the camera.
  • Cobbles were rearranged continuously during the time series, even during periods of weak currents, most likely by biological activity.
  • The pink coating on the cobbles, most obvious following the March storm, is a calcareous algae.
  • Flounder appear in frames 435, 450-452 (451 has three individuals), 462-464, 468-470, 475-476, 480-481, 489-481, 487-489, 492-493, 498-499, 504, and 534.
  • A starfish appears in frames 026-029, 074-090, and 362-379.
  • Resuspension events begin in frames 061, 229, 281, 398, and 569.

Times-series 665 (October 13, 2001 - February 6, 2002)

  • Frame numbers go from high to low in this time series.
  • Frames in the beginning (higher than 450) have a blue tint and are overexposed.
  • The pink coating on the cobbles is a calcareous algae.
  • A starfish appears in frames 496 - 483, 217-211, and others.
  • There are no pressure data for this time series.

Times-series 690 (May 21, 2002 - September 23, 2002)

  • The illumination of the sea floor decreases during the time series, most likely owing to biological growth on the camera strobe or decreased strobe battery power. The sea floor cannot be observed after about frame 600.
  • There is little of the pink calcareous algae on the cobbles observed in other tripod deployments, and it decreases during the time series, indicating biological growth or sedimentation on the sea floor.
  • Pebbles and cobbles were rearranged continuously during the time series, even during periods of weak currents, most likely by biological activity.
  • A scallop appears on the sea floor in frames 002-125 (to the right of the compass),126-202 (to the upper left of the compass).
  • A resuspension event begins in frame 154.
  • A hermit crab appears in frames 275-275.
  • The beam attenuation increases after about frame 500, indicating fouling of the transmissometer optics.

Times-series 717 (September 24, 2003 - February 1, 2004)

  • Only the right side of the frame is illuminated. The illumination decreases during the time series, and the sea floor cannot be observed after about frame 400.
  • There are no current, pressure, or beam attenuation data for this time series.
  • The compass slips along the deployment bracket and is out of the field of view in frame 129.
  • Resuspension events begin in frames 026, 076, 125, 346, and 438.
  • The tripod tips over during the resuspension event in frames 438-482. This storm in December 2003 was the third largest storm to occur in Massachusetts Bay between 1990 and 2006, based on integrated bottom wave stress (Butman and others, in press). The line spills from the rope canister during this event and is wrapped around the compass bracket in frame 482.

Times-series 767 (May 19, 2004 - July 17, 2004)

  • The red haze covering some of the frame is caused by the data chamber.
  • Owing to the red tint, the alignment of the frames is poor, causing the sea floor to appear to move back and forth between frames.
  • There are no current, pressure, or beam attenuation data for this time series.

Times-series 775 (September 22, 2004 - January 27, 2005)

  • There are no pressure or beam attenuation data for this time series.
  • The compass does not hang level, and the face is not visible.
  • A large number of small fish, identified as cunner, appear throughout the time series (for example, frame 012).
  • Resuspension events begin in frame 016, 046, 125, 172, and 194.
  • The tripod tips over at frame 329, not during a storm event; this is attributed to fouling with fishing gear, based on a line that appears in frames 353-407.

Time-series 777 (February 9, 2005 - May 14, 2005)

  • This was a field test of the new time-series camera system.
  • Frames are numbered from 321 - 387. The first 3 digits of the file name are the Mooring Number (777).
  • The photographs are not evenly spaced in time because the camera timer did not function as intended.
  • Only individual images are included in this data report.
  • The camera housing leaked; water is visible on the housing window as an out-of-focus streak (for example, frames 332-341).

Time-series 786 (May 18, 2005 - July 15, 2005)

  • This was a field test of the new time-series camera system.
  • The first 3 digits of the photograph file name are the Mooring Number (786).
  • The photographs are nominally spaced 8 hours apart; timing becomes intermittent at frame 109.
  • Only individual images are included in this data report.
  • Resuspension events begin in frames 14 and 80.
  • Several of the photographs have a green tint (for example, frames 3 and 112).
Jump to top of page
Return to the Highlights of Time-series page.  Go to the Oceanographic Data, Matlab, Acknowledgments page.
Skip Navigation

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USAGov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey

URL: woodshole.er.usgs.gov/pubs/ds-266/WEBPAGES/comments.html
Page Contact Information: WHSC Webmaster
This page last modified on Monday, 14-Jan-2013 12:49:59 EST