CAPENORTHPSEUDO_MER4M.TIF: 4-m Image of the Northern Half of the Pseudo-colored Backscatter Intensity of the Sea Floor off Northeastern Cape Cod (Mercator)
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With pseudo-colored backscatter intensity, the backscatter intensity is combined with the topography to display the distribution of intensity in relation to the topography. In the image shown here, the backscatter intensity is represented by a suite of eight colors ranging from blue, which represents low intensity, to red, which represents high intensity. These data are draped over a shaded relief image created by vertically exaggerating the topography four times and then artificially illuminating the relief by a light source positioned 45 degrees above the horizon from an azimuth of 0 degrees. The resulting image displays light and dark intensities within each color band that result from a feature's position with respect to the light source. For example, north-facing slopes, receiving strong illumination, show as a light intensity within a color band, whereas south-facing slopes, being in shadow, show as a dark intensity within a color band.
After the echo sounder data were logged onto the hard disk of the Sun workstation, a suite of processing software developed by the Ocean Mapping Group (www.omg.unb.ca/~jhc/SwathEd.html) was used to correct for artifacts and errors that may have been introduced during data collection. This software also enhanced the corrected data by resolving beam pattern and aspect ratio distortions and by imposing a linear contrast stretch before it generated bathymetric and sidescan sonar image mosaics in a Mercator projection. All data processing described here is initiated using Silicon Graphics workstations as soon as each acquisition file is closed by the Simrad Mermaid workstation (usually at the end of each survey line). Additional processing was done in the lab to correct for fluctuations in sea level during the survey and for artifacts in the data files that were not corrected in the field (see below).
(2) The processing and editing steps on board the ship were:
(A.) Demultiplex, or unravel, the acquired Simrad data files using RT to generate separate files containing navigation, depth soundings, sidescan sonar backscatter values, and sound velocity information.
(B.) Automatically reject bad data (autoRejectSoundings). For the multibeam soundings, reject data outside expected depth ranges (operator's decision based on nautical chart data); for navigation data, reject fixes with poor GPS statistics.
(C.) Edit the navigation data on-screen using jview to remove undesirable points, including turns at the ends of survey lines.
(D.) Edit the multibeam soundings on-screen using swathed to remove individual anomalous soundings.
(E). Merge tidal information and the corrected navigation back (mergetide and mergenav) into the data files. Tidal information was obtained from predicted tides using the Xtide program <http://www.flaterco.com/xtide/xtide.html>), which generated predicted tides based on the harmonic coefficients for Chatham provided by the Xtide program.
(F.) Map the bathymetric soundings from each processed data file onto a Mercator grid using weigh_grid (a SwathEd utility) with node spacings and scale selected by the operator. The grid file (capenorth.r4) was a floating point binary file.
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