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Sea Floor Image Maps Showing Topography, Sun-Illuminated Topography, Backscatter Intensity, Ruggedness, Slope, and the Distribution of Boulder Ridges and Bedrock Outcrops in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Region off Boston, Massachusetts

Page C. Valentine, editor

A.  Sea Floor Topography in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine
       Sanctuary Region
       By Page C. Valentine, Jessica L. Baker, and Tanya S. Unger

B.  Sun-Illuminated Sea Floor Topography in the Stellwagen Bank
       National Marine Sanctuary Region
       By Page C. Valentine, Tanya S. Unger, and Jessica L. Baker

C.  Backscatter Intensity and Sun-Illuminated Sea Floor Topography
       in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Region
       By Page C. Valentine, Tanya S. Unger, and Jessica L. Baker

D.  Sea Floor Ruggedness in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine
       Sanctuary Region
       By Page C. Valentine, Lian A. Scully, and Sarah J. Fuller
            Sheet 1.—General sea floor ruggedness and topography.
            Sheet 2.—General sea floor ruggedness and sun-illuminated
            Sheet 3.—Sea floor ruggedness in the >30- to
                              100-centimeter range and sun-illuminated
            Sheet 4.—Sea floor ruggedness in the >1- to 2-meter range
                              and sun-illuminated topography.
            Sheet 5.—Sea floor ruggedness in the >2- to 6-meter range
                              and sun-illuminated topography.

E.  Sea Floor Slope and Sun-Illuminated Topography in the Stellwagen
       Bank National Marine Sanctuary Region
       By Page C. Valentine, Sarah J. Fuller, and Lian A. Scully

F.  Distribution of Boulder Ridges and Bedrock Outcrops in the
       Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Region
       By Page C. Valentine, Lian A. Scully, and Sarah J. Fuller
            Sheet 1.—Boulder ridges, bedrock outcrops, and sea floor
            Sheet 2.—Boulder ridges, bedrock outcrops, and sun-illuminated
                              sea floor topography.
            Sheet 3.—Boulder ridges, bedrock outcrops, sun-illuminated
                              sea floor topography, and stations.

U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2840

2005, Version 1.0

Prepared in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration


Sea floor mapping in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (NMS) is a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, with technical support from the University of New Brunswick and the Canadian Hydrographic Service. The maps generated from this undertaking are based on a 1994–96 survey that used a multibeam echo sounder to map 1,100 square nautical miles of the sea floor (fig. 1).

The purpose of the survey was to collect detailed topographic and seabed backscatter imagery that will serve as the basis for mapping the sea floor morphology, the sedimentary environments, and the benthic habitats of the region. The imagery will also serve as the basis for conducting studies on (1) the geological and biological processes that form and alter the seabed, (2) the distribution of benthic habitats, and (3) the function of habitats in the life cycles of groundfish and other benthic species. Additionally, the imagery will be the basis for studies on the management of (1) fisheries, (2) seabed utility corridors and waste disposal sites, and (3) environmental, cultural, and mineral resources.

The technology and methods of image acquisition and topographic contouring that were used are described in the Methods section of this DVD-ROM and in publication 4 in the References section. USGS Scientific Investigations Maps (SIM) 2840–A to –F constitute a six-map (twelve-sheet) series in digital (DVD-ROM) format. The first three maps, SIM 2840–A, –B, and –C, were previously published on paper as USGS Geologic Investigations Series Maps I–2676–A, –B, and –C (publications 43–45 in the References). Preliminary versions of those three maps also had been released earlier on a CD-ROM as USGS Open-File Report 00–410 (publication 42).

The map area shown here is a composite of 18 individual quadrangle maps (fig. 1). Two map series of the 18 quadrangles have been published at a scale of 1:25,000 and show sea floor topography (publications 4–22) and sun-illuminated sea floor topography (fig. 2; see publications 23–41). Selected sea floor maps, photographs, CD-ROMs, fact sheets, posters, and geographic names related to research conducted in the Stellwagen Bank NMS region are available online at USGS Web site See the References section for a complete numbered list of other publications.

On the maps presented in this series, the locations of the corners of the 18 quadrangles are shown for reference as ticks labeled outside the map edges, and (on maps C and E) as large crossticks within the map area. Maps A, B, D, and F show the boundaries of the individual quadrangles. On the maps that show sun-illuminated sea floor topography, blank spaces represent areas of no data.

Using this DVD-ROM and System Requirements

This DVD-ROM was produced in accordance with the UDF standards. Contents are intended for use on UNIX, Macintosh, or Windows platforms. However, GIS data are viewable on Windows and UNIX platforms.

To access the information contained on this disc with a WWW client browser, open the file INDEX.HTML at the top-level directory of this disc with your selected browser. The disc should be viewable by all WWW browsers but may not properly format on some older WWW browsers.

This disc includes Portable Document File (PDF), Registered TIF, and ESRI-formatted GIS files of 6 maps, comprising 12 individual map sheets. The PDF files are included on this DVD-ROM for viewing and printing. You must have the most recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader downloaded in order to view them; this is free software.


This DVD-ROM publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in this report, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark , manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. Any views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. Although all data published on the disc have been used by the USGS, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS as to the accuracy of the data and related materials and (or) the functioning of the software. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data, software, or related materials. The maps are not to be used for navigational purposes.


Section 508 and Accessibility at the USGS

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File Formats and Directories

The maps and their components are included in this DVD-ROM in six different formats:

Directory CSS: This directory includes the style sheet used for HTML formatting on this disc.

Directory DATA: This directory has the data files used to compile the maps, including ESRI-formatted GIS files, PDF map files, TIF images, and metadata.

Directory ESRI GIS: This directory has the ESRI-formatted winzip files of features and surfaces, as well as their associated metadata. Projection information for each file is noted in the individual metadata.

Directory HTML: This directory has HTML files used for documentation on this DVD-ROM including: map sheet discussions and figures; geographic names; references list; citation formats for maps on this disc; methods; and metadata. See Contents section of this disc.

Directory IMAGES: This directory has JPG and GIF images of: location maps (figs. 1, 2); backscatter, ruggedness, and slope indices; and other graphics associated with some of the HTML files.

Sub-directory IMAGES/PDF: This subdirectory has PDF files of individual map sheets, location maps, map discussions with figures and tables, references list, and citation formats. The PDF files for the map sheets were generated from Adobe Illustrator version 9.0 and contain maps in Mercator projection, with the longitude of the central meridian at 70°19' W. and the latitude of true scale at 41°39'N. The PDF files are included for viewing and printing using Adobe Reader. The map files require a maximum page size of 36 by 65 in. (91.4 x 165.1 cm). See Contents section of this disc.

Directory TIF: This directory has winzip files of TIFs, associated TIF World Files (TWF), and associated metadata that can be incorporated into a GIS database for use with ArcGIS. The TIF World Files project the TIFs in a Mercator projection, with Geodetic Reference System 1980 and North American Datum 1983. See Contents section of this disc.

For more information contact:

Page Valentine
U.S. Geological Survey
384 Woods Hole Rd
Woods Hole, MA 02543-1598
(508) 457-2239

This DVD-ROM can be ordered from:

USGS Information Services
Box 25286 Federal Center
Denver, CO 80225-0046
(303) 202-4200

For ordering information or assistance call 1-888-ASK-USGS.

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