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Martini, M.A., Warner, J.C., List, J.H., Armstrong, B., and Montgomery, E, 2012, Observations of Ocean Circulation and Sediment Transport Processes offshore of Fire Island, NY: MTS/IEEE OCEANS
Mosher, D.C., Shimeld, J., Hutchinson, D., Chian, D., Lebedeva-Ivanova, N., and Jackson, R., 2012, Canada Basin Revealed: Arctic Technology Conference
More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final stage of sedimentation appears to be from the Mackenzie-Beaufort region for the Miocene and Pliocene when drainage patterns shifted in the Yukon and Alaska to the Mackenzie valley. Upturned reflections at onlap positions may indicate syn-depositional subsidence. There is little evidence, at least at a regional seismic data scale, of contemporaneous or post-depositional sediment reworking, suggesting little large-scale geostrophic or thermohaline-driven bottom current activity.
Pohlman, J.W., Riedel, M., Novosel, I., Bauer, J.E., Canuel, E.A., Paull, C., Coffin, R.B., Grabowski, K.S., Knies, D.L., Hyndman, R.D., and Spence, G.D., 2011, Evidence and biogeochemical implications for glacially-derived sediments in an active margin cold seep: 7th International Conference on Gas Hydrates
Fisher, M.A., Hyndman, R.D., Johnson, S.Y., Brocher, T.M., Crosson, R.S., Wells, R.E., Calvert, A.J., and ten Brink, U.S., 2005, Crustal structure and earthquake hazards of the subduction zone in southwestern British Columbia and western Washington, in Kayen, Robert, ed., Earthquake hazards of the Pacific Northwest costal and marine regions: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1661-C . Online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1661c
Parsons, T., Blakely, R.J., Brocher, T.M., Christensen, N.I., Fisher, M.A., Flueh, E., Kilbride, F., Luetgert, J.H., Miller, K., ten Brink, U.S., Trehu, A.M., and Wells, R.E., 2005, Crustal structure of the Cascadia fore arc of Washington, in Kayen, Robert, ed., Earthquake hazards of the Pacific Northwest costal and marine regions: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1661-D . Online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1661d
, usgs , prof paper , 3324 , released 2005 , fy06
Manheim, F.T., Hayes, L.,, 2002, Lake Pontchartrain Basin--bottom sediments and related environmental resources: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1634, CD-ROM . Online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/prof/p1634/
McCrory, Patricia A., Foster, David S., Danforth, William W., Hamer, M.R.,, 2002, Crustal deformation at the leading edge of the Oregon Coast Range Block, offshore Washington (Columbia River to Hoh River): U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1661-A, 47 p., 2 plates, 1:250,000 scale.
Ommanney, C.S.L.,, 2002, Glaciers of North America (exclusive of Alaska), chapter J, in Williams, Richard S., Jr., and Ferrigno, J.G., eds., Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world; North America: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-J (Glaciers of North America) . Online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/prof/p1386j/
Allison, Ian, Peterson, James A., Chinn , Trevor J.H.,, 2000, Irian Jaya, Indonesia, and New Zealand, chapter H, in Williams, Richard S., Jr., and Ferigno, J.G., eds., Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-H . Online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/prof/p1386h/
Morales-Arnao, B., and Hastenrath, S., 1999, Glaciers of Peru, 1994, subchapter 11.4 of chapter 11, Glaciers of South America, in Williams, R.S. , Jr., and Ferrigno, J.G., eds., Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386 (Glaciers of South America)
Schubert, C.,, 1998, Glaciers of Venezuela (I–1); Hoyos-Patiño, F., 1998, Glaciers of Colombia (I–2); Jordan, E., and Hastenrath, S., 1998, Glaciers of Ecuador (I-3); Morales Arnao, B., 1998, Glaciers of Perú (I–4), with a section on Quelccaya Ice Cap, by Hastenrath, S.; Jordan, E., 1998, Glaciers of Bolivia (I–5); and Lliboutry, L., 1998, Glaciers of Chile and Argentina (I–6), with a section on Rock Glaciers by Corte, A.E.; in Williams, Richard S., Jr., and Ferrigno, J.G., eds., Satellite Image of Atlas of Glaciers of the World: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-I (Glaciers of South America) . Online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/prof/p1386i/
Harden, D.R., Colman, Steve M., Nolan, K.M., Nolan, K. M., Kelsey, H. M., Marron, D. C.,, 1995, Mass movement in the Redwood Creek basin, northwestern California geomorphic processes and aquatic habitat in the Redwood Creek basin, northwestern California: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper
Dillon, W.P., Lee, M.W., Fehlhaber, K., Coleman, D.F.,, 1993, Gas hydrates on the Atlantic margin of the United States - controls on concentration, in Howell, D.G., ed., The Future of Energy Gases: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1570
Lee, Myung W., Hutchinson, Deborah R., Dillon, William P., Miller, John J., Agena, Warren F., Swift, Barbara A.,, 1993, Use of seismic data in estimating the amount of in-situ gas hydrates in deep marine sediment, in Howell, B.A., Wiese, K., Fanelli, M., Zink, L.L., and Cole, F., eds., The Future of Energy Gases: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1570
Poag, C.W., Ward, L.W.,, 1993, Allostratigraphy of the U.S. Middle Atlantic continental margin - characteristics, distribution, and depositional history of principal unconformity - bounded Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary units: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1542
Williams, Richard S., Jr., Ferrigno, J.G.,, 1993, Glaciers of Europe, chapter E, in Williams, Richard S., Jr., and Ferrigno, J.G., eds.,Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-E (Glaciers of Europe) . Online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/p1386e/
Rott, Heimut, Scherler, K.E., Reynaud, L., Barbero, R.S., Zanon, G.,, 1992, Glaciers of the Alps (E-1); Serrat, D., and Ventura, J., 1992, Glaciers of the Pyreness, Spain and France (E-2); Ostrem, G., and Haakensen, M., 1992, Glaciers of Norway (E-3); Schytt, V., 1992, Glaciers of Sweden (E- 4), Liestal, O., 1992, Glaciers of Svalvard, Norway (E- 5); and Orheim, O., 1992, Glaciers of Jan Mayen, Norway (E-6); in Williams, Richard S., Jr., and Gerrigno, J.G., eds., Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-E, (Glaciers of Europe)
Kurter, Ajun, Ferrigno, J.G., Young, J.A.T., Hastenrath, S.L.,, 1991, Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world, chapter G, in Williams, Richard S., Jr., and Ferrigno, J.G., eds, Glaciers of the Middle East and Africa: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-G (Glaciers of the Middle East and Africa), Version 1 . Online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/prof/p1386g/
Schlee, John, 1977, Stratigraphy and Tertiary development of the continental margin east of Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 581-F . Online at http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/pp/pp581F
Holmes, Charles W., 1976, Distribution, regional variation, and geochemical coherence of selected elements in the sediments of the central Gulf of Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 928 . Online at http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/pp928
Hathaway, John C., McFarlin, Peter F., and Ross, David A., 1970, Mineralogy and origin of sediments from drill holes on the continental margin off Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 581-E . Online at http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/pp/pp581E
Drill cores obtained during the Joint Oceanographic Institutions' Deep Earth Sampling Program from the continental shelf, the Florida-Hatteras Slope, and the Blake Plateau off northern Florida are composed of sediments ranging in age from Paleocene to post-Miocene. Calcite is the dominant mineral in all the cores; dolomite is almost completely restricted to the shelf and slope cores. Aragonite persists in samples as old as Oligocene, but magnesian calcite occurs only in post-Miocene samples. In general, only Miocene samples contain noncarbonate minerals in appreciable quantity. Phosphates are limited largely to the Miocene sediments. Here also, the clay minerals palygorskite, sepiolite, and montmorillonite are dominant. These clay minerals and the zeolites clinoptilolite and phillipsite in Miocene and older sediments suggest that volcanic activity was the principal source of noncarbonate deposition during much of the Tertiary. Heavy-mineral analyses suggest a southern Appalachian source for detrital materials. Terrigenous detrital material is scarce in most of the cores except for the surface samples on the continental shelf. The concentration of detrital quartz here probably resulted from reworking and winnowing by regression and transgression of the sea during the Pleistocene rather than by increased influx of terrigenous material. Consolidated chertlike rocks consist of dominantly carbonate minerals in the nearshore holes and dominantly opaline cristobalite in the Blake Plateau holes. Reflux dolomitization by dense brines produced in evaporative lagoons in the area of the continental shelf and later incursions of fresh ground water from the Florida peninsula may have lithified sediments in the nearshore holes. Only when conditions were favorable for silicification were sediments on the Blake Plateau appreciably consolidated.
Bray, E. E., and Evans, E. D., 1969, Organic extracts from JOIDES cores off northeastern Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 581-C . Online at http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/pp/pp581C
Extracts of samples from cores of Tertiary strata at six sites off the Atlantic coast of northern Florida and across the Blake Plateau contained very meager quantities of hydrocarbons and other soluble organic material. Eleven samples forming a group with the least carbonate content from the shelf and continental slope were available for hydrocarbon analyses. In five of these samples from depths less than 25 meters below the ocean floor, the smaller molecular sizes, ranging from C12 to C20, averaged 22.1 percent of the saturated hydrocarbons (C12-C30), whereas in the remaining six samples from greater depths, this fraction averaged 36.5 percent.
Charm, W. B., Nesteroff, W. D., and Valdes, Sylvia, 1969, Detailed stratigraphic description of the JOIDES cores on the continental margin off Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 581-D . Online at http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/pp/pp581D
A total of 513 meters of core was recovered from six holes drilled into the continental shelf, the Florida-Hatteras Slope, and the Blake Plateau off the east coast of Florida. From every 76 centimeters of core, a sample was taken for petrologic examination and for determination of the calcium carbonate and the percent coarser than 62 microns. Limestones, sands, silts, and clays, presumably of shallow-water origin, make up the Eocene and younger sediments that lie beneath the continental shelf east of Jacksonville, Fla. The upper Eocene and Oligocene sediments thicken slightly toward the edge of the shelf. Alternating layers of clay and limestone were deposited on the Florida-Hatteras Slope during the Eocene and Oligocene Epochs. Since the Miocene (Miocene sediments are absent), they have been covered by a clay that grades upward into a sand. Foraminiferal oozes and silts have prevailed since the Eocene on the Blake Plateau.
Hulsemann, Jobst, 1968, Calcium carbonate, organic carbon, and nitrogen in sediments from drill holes on the continental margin off Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 581-B . Online at http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/pp/pp581B
The organic constituents of sediments (calcium carbonate, organic carbon, and nitrogen) from six drill holes off Florida were analyzed in 47 samples. The drill holes penetrated the continental shelf, the upper Florida-Hatteras Slope, and the Blake Plateau. Differences in distribution and abundance of the organic constituents strongly suggest that two facies were deposited during the span of geologic time (Paleocene to Recent) represented by the samples. One facies (low organic carbon and nitrogen, uniform carbon-nitrogen ratio, and high calcium carbonate content) is characteristic of the Blake Plateau; the other facies (higher organic carbon and nitrogen, a carbon-nitrigen ratio that increases with age, and relatively low calcium carbonate content) is typical of the shelf and of the upper Florida-Hatteras Slope. Some significant differences in the concentrations of the organic constituents are correlated with changes in the rates of supply and accumulation of sediment. These changes appear to be related to tectonic movement of the sea floor or the adjacent lowland of Florida, rather than to climatic changes. In the sampled parts of the offshore area, the upper Florida-Hatteras Slope is the most favorable site for the accumulation of organic matter.
Emery, K. O., and Zarudzki, E. F. K., 1967, Seismic reflection profiles along the drill holes on the continental margin off Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 581-A . Online at http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/pp/pp581A
Continuous seismic reflection profiles along the line of JOIDES drill holes were adjusted for the velocity of sound at depth, as measured in one of the drill holes and determined at nearby seismic refraction stations. The adjusted reflecting horizons agree in many respects with the stratigraphic section which includes strata of Miocene, Oligocene, Eocene, and Paleocene age, as indicated by samples from the drill holes. The reflection profiles provide continuity of data between the drill holes and extend to much greater depths than the drill; thus they supplement and amplify information derived from the drill samples. Both kinds of data show that the continental shelf is underlain by a Tertiary sequence that has prograded seaward so that the foreset beds form the past and present Florida-Hatteras Slope. No evidence of faulting at the Florida-Hatteras Slope is exhibited by the reflecting horizons. A shallow ridge (or anticline), probably of Cretaceous strata, may underlie the middle part of the continental shelf. The seismic profile between two drill holes on the Blake Plateau contains reflecting horizons that correspond fairly well to the tops of Oligocene and Paleocene strata that were sampled by the drill. These strata continue beyond the plateau, and they partly mantle the Blake Escarpment. Deeper reflecting horizons lie within the Cretaceous sequence, and some may even be older than Cretaceous; they are truncated by the Tertiary beds that mantle the Blake Escarpment.
Molnia, B.F., 0, Glaciers of Alaska, with sections on Columbia and Hubbard tidewater glaciers by Krimmel, R.M.; and The 1986 and 2002 temporary closures of Russell Fiord by the Hubbard Glacier, by Molnia, B.F., Trabant, D.C., March, R.S., and Krimmel, R.M., and Geospatial analysis of glaciers in the eastern Alaska Range by Manley, W.F., in Williams, Richard S., Jr., and Ferrigno, J.G., eds., Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-K (Glaciers of Alaska)
Molnia, Bruce F., Krimmel, Robert M., Manley, William E., March, Rod S., Molnia, Bruce F., Trabant, Dennis C.,, 0, Glaciers of Alaska (Glaciers of the United States, Glaciers of North America), in Williams, R.S., Jr., and Ferrigno, J.G., eds., Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-K
Sigurðsson, Oddur, Williams, Richard S., Jr.,, 0, Geographic names of Iceland's glaciers; historic and modern: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper xxxx
Williams, Jr., Richard S., and Ferrigno, J.G., 0, State of the Earth's cryosphere at the beginning of the 21st century; Glaciers, global snow cover, floating ice, and permafrost and periglacial environments, chapter A, in Williams, Richard S., Jr., and Ferrigno, J.G., eds., Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-A, including map scale 1:50,000,000 . Online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/p1386a/
Williams, Richard S., Jr., Ferrigno, J G,, 0, Landsat images of Greenland, chapter C, in Greenland by Weidick, Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-C (Greenland)
Williams, Richard S., Jr., Sigurðsson, O., 0, Glaciers of Ireland, chapter D, in Williams, Richard S., Jr., and Ferrigno, J.G., eds., with section on Holocene glacier flunctuations in Iceland by Guomundsson, J.J., and Hreggvidour, N., Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-D (Glaciers of Ireland)
Winters, W. J., Lorenson, T. D., Paull, C. K., Balut, Y., Boldina, O. M., Bout-Roumazeilles, V., Brunner, C. A., Chen, Y., Cooper, A., Dearmay, J. L., Geli, L., Hart, P. E., Kirby, S. H., Labails, C., Lynch, F. L., Matsumoto, R., Novosel, I., Rogers, R. E., Stern, L. A., Sultan, N., Trentesaux, A. and Ussler, W. I., 0, Initial report of the IMAGES VIII/PAGE 127 gas hydrate and paleoclimate cruise on the R/V Marion Dufresne in the Gulf of Mexico, 2-18 July 2002: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper
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Dai, S., Jang, J., Lee, J.Y., Seol, Y, and Waite, W.F., , What has been learned from pressure cores?: 9th International Conference on Gas Hydrates
Jang, J., Cao, S., Waite, W., Jung J., , Impact of pore-water freshening on clays and the compressibility of hydrate-bearing reservoirs during production: 9th International Conference on Gas Hydrates
Kamp, U., Krumwiede, B., McManigal, K., Walther, M., and Dashtseren, A, , Glaciers of Asia; Glaciers of Mongolia: online addendum to USGS Professional Paper 1386-F
Lin, Uchida, Myshakin, Seol, Rutqvist, Boswell, Waite, Jang, Collet, , Geomechanical analysis of the initial stage of gas production from interbedded hydrate-bearing sediment: 9th International Conference on Gas Hydrates
Sigurosson, O, Williams, R., , Glaciers of Iceland: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-D
Waite, W.F., Weber, T., Fu, X., Juanes, R., and Ruppel,C., , Laboratory observation of the evolution and rise rate of bubbles with and without hydrate shells: 9th International Conference on Gas Hydrates
Williams, R.S., Jr., and Ferrigno, J.G., , Glaciers, subchapter 2 of chapter A, State of the Earth's cryosphere at the beginning of the 21st century; Glaciers, global snow cover, floating ice, and permafrost and periglacial environments, in Williams, Richard S., Jr., and Ferrigno, J.G., eds., Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-A-2
Williams, R.S., Jr., and Ferrigno, J.G.,, , State of the Earth's cryosphere at the beginning of the 21st century; glaciers, global snow cover, floating ice, and permafrost and periglacial environments.: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386; with plate and 8 supplemental Cryosphere notes
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