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All Publications by WHCMSC Authors for the year 2016



Ackerman, S.D., Brothers, L.L., Foster, D.S., Andrews, B.D., Baldwin, W.E., and Schwab, W.C., 2016, High-Resolution Geophysical Data From the Inner Continental Shelf: South of Marthas Vineyard and North of Nantucket, Massachusetts: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2016-1168 . Online at 10.3133/ofr20161168
Andrews, B., Chaytor, J., ten Brink, U., Brothers, D., Gardner, J., and Lobecker, E., 2016, Bathymetric Terrain Model of the Atlantic Margin for Marine Geological Investigations, version 2.0: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1266 version 2.0 . Online at 10.3133/ofr20121266
Bathymetric terrain models of seafloor morphology are an important component of marine geological investigations. Advances in acquisition and processing technologies of bathymetric data have facilitated the creation of high-resolution bathymetric surfaces that approach the resolution of similar surfaces available for onshore investigations. These bathymetric terrain models provide a detailed representation of the Earth�s subaqueous surface and, when combined with other geophysical and geological datasets, allow for interpretation of modern and ancient geological processes. The purpose of the bathymetric terrain model presented in this report is to provide a high-quality bathymetric surface of the Atlantic margin of the United States that can be used to augment current and future marine geological investigations. The input data for this bathymetric terrain model, covering almost 305,000 square kilometers, were acquired by several sources, including the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Geophysical Data Center and the Ocean Exploration Program, the University of New Hampshire, and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. These data have been edited using hydrographic data processing software to maximize the quality, usability, and cartographic presentation of the combined terrain model.
Baldwin, W., Foster, D., Pendleton, E., Barnhardt, W., Schwab, W., Andrews, B., and Ackerman, S., 2016, Shallow Geology, Sea-Floor Texture, and Physiographic Zones of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2016-1119 . Online at 10.3133/ofr20161119
Brothers, L.L., Herman, B.E., Hart, P.E., and Ruppel, C.D, 2016, Subsea ice-bearing permafrost on the U.S. Beaufort Margin: 1. Minimum seaward extent defined from multichannel seismic reflection data: G3 . Online at 10.1002/2016GC006584
Butman, B., Danforth, W.W., Hughes-Clark, J.E., Signell, R.P., and Schwab, W.C., 2016, Bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York: U.S. Geological Survey data release . Online at 10.5066/F7Z899GG
Carey, J.C., Tang, T., Templer, P.H., Kroeger, K.D., etal, 2016, Data compilation of soil respiration, moisture, and temperature measurements from global warming experiments from 1994-2014: U.S. Geological Survey data release . Online at 10.5066/F7MK6B1X
Catlin, D. Zeigler, S., Fraser,J., Hunt, K., Bromberger-Brown, M., Dinan, L., Jorgensen, J.G., 2016, Metapopulation viability of an endangered shorebird depends on human-created habitats: piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) and prairie rivers: Movement Ecology , v. 4 , no. 6 . Online at 10.1186%2Fs40462-016-0072-y
Chaytor, J.D., Demopoulos, A.W.J., ten Brink, U.S., Baxter, C., Quattrini, A.M., and Brothers, D.S., 2016, Assessment of Canyon Wall Failure Process from Multibeam Bathymetry and Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Observations, U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin: . Online at 10.1007/978-3-319-20979-1_10
Over the last few years, canyons along the northern U.S. Atlantic continental margin have been the focus of intensive research examining canyon evolution, submarine geohazards, benthic ecology and deep-sea coral habitat. New high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in the major shelf-breaching and minor slope canyons, provided the opportunity to investigate the size of, and processes responsible for, canyon wall failures. The canyons cut through thick Late Cretaceous to Recent mixed siliciclastic and carbonate-rich lithologies which impart a primary control on the style of failures observed. Broad-scale canyon morphology across much of the margin can be correlated to the exposed lithology. Near vertical walls, sedimented benches, talus slopes, and canyon floor debris aprons were present in most canyons. The extent of these features depends on canyon wall cohesion and level of internal fracturing, and resistance to biological and chemical erosion. Evidence of brittle failure over different spatial and temporal scales, physical abrasion by downslope moving flows, and bioerosion, in the form of burrows and surficial scrape marks provide insight into the modification processes active in these canyons. The presence of sessile fauna, including long-lived, slow growing corals and sponges, on canyon walls, especially those affected by failure provide a critical, but as yet, poorly understood chronological record of geologic processes within these systems.
Chian, Jackson, Hutchinson, Shimeld, Oakey, Lebedeva-Ivanova, Li, Saltus, and Mosher, 2016, Distribution of crustal types in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean: Tectonophysics . Online at 10.1016/j.tecto.2016.01.038
Seismic velocities determined from 70 sonobuoys widely distributed in Canada Basin were used to discriminate crustal types. Velocities of oceanic layer 3 (6.7�7.1 km/s), transitional (7.2�7.6 km/s) and continental crust (5.5�6.6 km/s) were used to distinguish crustal types. Potential field data supports the distribution of oceanic crust as a polygon with maximum dimensions of ~ 340 km (east�west) by ~ 590 km (north�south) and identification of the ocean�continent boundary (OCB). Paired magnetic anomalies are associated only with crust that has oceanic velocities. Furthermore, the interpreted top of oceanic crust on seismic reflection profiles is more irregular and sometimes shallower than adjacent transitional crust. The northern segment of the narrow Canada Basin Gravity Low (CBGL), often interpreted as a spreading center, bisects this zone of oceanic crust and coincides with the location of a prominent valley in seismic reflection profiles. Data coverage near the southern segment of CBGL is sparse. Velocities typical of transitional crust are determined east of it. Extension in this region, close to the inferred pole of rotation, may have been amagmatic. Offshore Alaska is a wide zone of thinned continental crust up to 300 km across. Published longer offset refraction experiments in the Basin confirm the depth to Moho and the lack of oceanic layer 3 velocities. Further north, toward Alpha Ridge and along Northwind Ridge, transitional crust is interpreted to be underplated or intruded by magmatism related to the emplacement of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). Although a rotational plate tectonic model is consistent with the extent of the conjugate magnetic anomalies that occupy only a portion of Canada Basin, it does not explain the asymmetrical configuration of the oceanic crust in the deep water portion of Canada Basin, and the unequal distribution of transitional and continental crust around the basin.
Defne, Z., Ganju, N., 2016, Conceptual salt marsh units (polygon features) in Edwin B. Forsythe (EBF) National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey data release . Online at 10.5066/F7QV3JPG
Defne, Z., Ganju, N., and Aretxabaleta, A, 2016, Estimating time-dependent connectivity in marine systems: Geophysical Research Letters , v. 43 , no. 3 , pp. 1193-1201 . Online at 10.1002/2015GL066888
Defne, Z., Ganju, Neil, K., 2016, Mean tidal range in salt marsh units of Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey data release . Online at 10.5066/F7CF9N7X
Fandel, C.L., Lippman, T.C., Foster, D.L., and Brothers, L.L., 2016, Observations of Pockmark Flow Structure in Belfast Bay, Maine, Part 1: Mixing: Geo-Marine Letters . Online at 10.1007/s00367-016-0472-4
Fandel, Christina L., Lippman, Thomas C., Foster, Diane L., and Brothers, Laura, 2016, Observations of Pockmark Flow Structure in Belfast Bay, Maine, Part 3: Implications for Sediment Transport: Geo-Marine Letters . Online at 10.1007/s00367-016-0474-2
Fandel, Christina L., Lippman, Thomas C., Foster, Diane L., and Brothers, Laura L, 2016, Observations of Pockmark Flow Structure in Belfast Bay, Maine, Part 2: Evidence for Cavity Flow: Geo-Marine Letters . Online at 10.1007/s00367-016-0473-3
Flores, C.H., ten Brink, U.S., McGuire, J., and Collins, J, 2016, Observations of Seismicity and Ground Motion in the Northeast U.S. Atlantic Margin from Ocean-Bottom Seismometer Data: Seismological Research Letters , v. 88 , no. 1 . Online at 10.1785/0220160079
Fredericks, X., ten Brink, U.S., Atwater, B.F., Kranenburg, C.J., Nagle, D.B., 2016, Coastal Topography - Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014: U.S. Geological Survey data release . Online at 10.5066/F7GM85F3
Ganju, N., Suttles, S., Beudin, A., Nowacki, D, Miselis, J., and Andrews, B, 2016, Quantification of storm-induced bathymetric change in a back-barrier estuary: Estuaries and Coasts
Geomorphology is a fundamental control on ecological and economic function of estuaries. However, relative to open coasts, there has been little quantification of storm-induced bathymetric change in back-barrier estuaries. Vessel-based and airborne bathymetric mapping can cover large areas quickly, but change detection is difficult because measurement errors can be larger than the actual changes over the storm timescale. We quantified storm-induced bathymetric changes at several locations in Chincoteague Bay, Maryland/Virginia, over the August 2014 to July 2015 period using fixed, downward-looking altimeters and numerical modeling. At sand-dominated shoal sites, measurements showed storm-induced changes on the order of 5 cm, with variability related to stress magnitude and wind direction. Numerical modeling indicates that the predominantly northeasterly wind direction in the fall and winter promotes southwest-directed sediment transport, causing erosion of the northern face of sandy shoals; southwesterly winds in the spring and summer lead to the opposite trend. Our results suggest that storm-induced estuarine bathymetric change magnitudes are often smaller than those detectable with methods such as LiDAR. More precise fixed-sensor methods have the ability to elucidate the geomorphic processes responsible for modulating estuarine bathymetry on the event and seasonal timescale, but are limited spatially. Numerical modeling enables interpretation of broad-scale geomorphic processes and can be used to infer the long-term trajectory of estuarine bathymetric change due to episodic events, when informed by fixed-sensor methods.
Ganju, N.K., Dickhudt, P.J., Montgomery, E.T., and Brosnahan, S.M., 2016, Oceanographic and Water-Quality Measurements in two Southern California Coastal Wetlands, 2013-2014: U.S. Geological Survey data release . Online at 10.5066/F78050PZ
Ganju, N.K., Kirwan, M.L., Dickhudt, P.J., Guntenspergen, G.R., Cahoon, D.R., 2016, Sediment transport-based metrics of wetland stability: Geophysical Research Letters . Online at 10.1002/2015GL065980
Despite the importance of sediment availability on wetland stability, models of wetland geomorphology seldom consider the spatiotemporal variability of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in adjacent waters. These models predict that the maximum rate of sea level rise a marsh can survive is proportional to ambient SSC and their effect on vertical accretion rates. In contrast, we find that accretion and SSC are higher in a rapidly submerging Chesapeake Bay wetland complex (Blackwater River) than in the adjacent stable wetland complex (Transquaking River). Mean SSC at sites within the Blackwater River range between 34-54 mg L-1 while SSC at the Transquaking sites range between 19-38 mg L-1; accretion averages 6 mm y-1 at Blackwater sites and 4 mm y-1 at the Transquaking sites. The disintegration of the Blackwater River complex provides an internal sediment source that is mobilized during wind-wave events from both the submerged wetland plain and shoreline, resulting in higher accretion than the Transquaking River complex. Once a wetland has crossed a geomorphic tipping point due to perturbations such as sea-level rise, point measurements of SSC and accretion may be unsuitable for use in vulnerability assessments. High-temporal resolution SSC measurements at multiple sites appear to be better integrative indicators of stability: the Blackwater complex favors sediment export at a seaward site (10 mg L-1 higher on ebb tides) while the Transquaking complex favors sediment import at a landward site (13 mg L-1 higher on flood tides). Assessing vulnerability requires integrative measurements that cover all spatiotemporal scales of variability.
Kennedy, B.R.C., Quattrini, A.M., Cheadle, M.J., Garcia-Moliner, G., Chaytor, J., Demopoulos, A.W.J., 2016, Exploring Puerto Rico's Seamounts, Trenches, and Troughs: Oceano Profundo; Oceanography supplement EX1502 V5 . Online at http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/okeanos/explorations/ex1502/logs/apr16/apr16.html
Lentz, E.E., Thieler, E.R., Plant, N.G., Stippa, S.R., Horton, R., and Gesch, D., 2016, Evaluation of dynamic coastal response to sea-level rise modifies inundation likelihood: Nature Climate Change . Online at 10.1038/NCLIMATE2957
Sea-level rise (SLR) poses a range of threats to natural and built environments1,2 , making assessments of SLR-induced hazards essential for informed decision making3 . We develop a probabilistic model that evaluates the likelihood that an area will inundate (flood) or dynamically respond (adapt) to SLR. The broad-area applicability of the approach is demonstrated by producing 30 �� 30 m resolution predictions for more than 38,000 km2 of diverse coastal landscape in the northeastern United States. Probabilistic SLR projections, coastal elevation and vertical land movement are used to estimate likely future inundation levels. Then, conditioned on future inundation levels and the current land-cover type, we evaluate the likelihood of dynamic response versus inundation. We find that nearly 70% of this coastal landscape has some capacity to respond dynamically to SLR, and we show that inundation models over-predict land likely to submerge. This approach is well suited to guiding coastal resource management decisions that weigh future SLR impacts and uncertainty against ecological targets and economic constraints.
Leonardi, N., Ganju, N.K., and Fagherazzi, S., 2016, A linear relationship between wave power and erosion determines salt-marsh resilience to violent storms and hurricanes.: Nature-Geosciences , v. 113 , pp. 64 - 68 . Online at 10.1073/pnas.1510095112
Miller, N.C., Lizarralde, D., 2016, Finite-frequency wave propagation through outer-rise fault zones and seismic measurements of upper-mantle hydration: Geophysical Research Letters , v. 43 , no. 15 . Online at 10.1002/2016GL070083
Montgomery, E., Suttles, S., and Ganju, N., 2016, Oceanographic and Water-Quality Measurements in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, 2014-2015: U.S. Geological Survey data release . Online at 10.5066/F7CN71Z6
Montgomery, E.T., Martini, M.A., Lightsom, F.L., and Butman, B., 2016, Documentation of the U.S. Geological Survey Oceanographic Time-Series Measurement Database, version 2.0: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1194 . Online at http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/pubs/of2007-1194/
Nowacki, D.J., Beudin, A., Ganju, N.K., 2017, Spectral wave dissipation by submerged aquatic vegetation in a back-barrier estuary: Limnology & Oceanography . Online at 10.1002/lno.10456
Oestreich, W.K., Ganju, N.K., Pohlman, J.W., and Suttles, S.E., 2016, Colored dissolved organic matter in shallow estuaries: relationships between carbon sources and light attenuation: Biogeosciences , v. 13 , no. 2 , pp. 583 - 595 . Online at 10.5194/bg-13-583-2016
Light availability is of primary importance to the ecological function of shallow estuaries. For example, benthic primary production by submerged aquatic vegetation is contingent upon light penetration to the seabed. A major component that attenuates light in estuaries is colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM is often measured via a proxy, fluorescing dissolved organic matter (fDOM), due to the ease of in situ fDOM sensor measurements. Fluorescence must be converted to CDOM absorbance for use in light attenuation calculations. However, this CDOM�fDOM relationship varies among and within estuaries. We quantified the variability in this relationship within three estuaries along the mid-Atlantic margin of the eastern United States: West Falmouth Harbor (MA), Barnegat Bay (NJ), and Chincoteague Bay (MD/VA). Land use surrounding these estuaries ranges from urban to developed, with varying sources of nutrients and organic matter. Measurements of fDOM (excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 nm (±5 nm) and 460 nm (±40 nm), respectively) and CDOM absorbance were taken along a terrestrial-to-marine gradient in all three estuaries. The ratio of the absorption coefficient at 340 nm (m−1) to fDOM (QSU) was higher in West Falmouth Harbor (1.22) than in Barnegat Bay (0.22) and Chincoteague Bay (0.17). The CDOM : fDOM absorption ratio was variable between sites within West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay, but consistent between sites within Chincoteague Bay. Stable carbon isotope analysis for constraining the source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay yielded δ13C values ranging from −19.7 to −26.1 � and −20.8 to −26.7 �, respectively. Concentration and stable carbon isotope mixing models of DOC (dissolved organic carbon) indicate a contribution of 13C-enriched DOC in the estuaries. The most likely source of 13C-enriched DOC for the systems we investigated is Spartina cordgrass. Comparison of DOC source to CDOM : fDOM absorption ratios at each site demonstrates the relationship between source and optical properties. Samples with 13C-enriched carbon isotope values, indicating a greater contribution from marsh organic material, had higher CDOM : fDOM absorption ratios than samples with greater contribution from terrestrial organic material. Applying a uniform CDOM : fDOM absorption ratio and spectral slope within a given estuary yields errors in modeled light attenuation ranging from 11 to 33 % depending on estuary. The application of a uniform absorption ratio across all estuaries doubles this error. This study demonstrates that light attenuation coefficients for CDOM based on continuous fDOM records are highly dependent on the source of DOM present in the estuary. Thus, light attenuation models for estuaries would be improved by quantification of CDOM absorption and DOM source identification.
Pendleton,E., Ackerman, S., Baldwin, W., Danforth, W., Foster, D., Thieler, R., Brothers, L, 2016, High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Delmarva Peninsula 2014, USGS Field Activity 2014-002-FA, version 4.0: U.S. Geological Survey data release . Online at 10.5066/F7MW2F60
Ruppel, C., Herman, B., Brothers, L., and Hart, P, 2016, Subsea Ice-bearing permafrost on the US Beaufort Margin, Part 2: Borehole Constraints: G3 . Online at 10.1002/2016GC006582
Safak, I., Warner, J., and List. J, 2016, Barrier island breach evolution: Alongshore transport and bay-ocean pressure gradient interactions: Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans . Online at 10.1002/2016JC012029
Scandella, B.P., Pillsbury, L., Weber, T., Ruppel, C., Hemond, H.F., and Juanes, R, 2016, Ephemerality of discrete methane vents in lake sediments: Geophysical Research Letters , no. 43 . Online at 10.1002/2016GL068668
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas whose emission from sediments in inland waters and shallow oceans may both contribute to global warming and be exacerbated by it. The fraction of methane emitted by sediments that bypasses dissolution in the water column and reaches the atmosphere as bubbles depends on the mode and spatiotemporal characteristics of venting from the sediments. Earlier studies have concluded that hot spots�¢ï¿½ï¿½persistent, high-flux vents�¢ï¿½ï¿½dominate the regional ebullitive flux from submerged sediments. Here the spatial structure, persistence, and variability in the intensity of methane venting are analyzed using a high-resolution multibeam sonar record acquired at the bottom of a lake during multiple deployments over a 9 month period. We confirm that ebullition is strongly episodic, with distinct regimes of high flux and low flux largely controlled by changes in hydrostatic pressure. Our analysis shows that the spatial pattern of ebullition becomes homogeneous at the sonar�¢ï¿½ï¿½s resolution over time scales of hours (for high-flux periods) or days (for low-flux periods), demonstrating that vents are ephemeral rather than persistent, and suggesting that long-term, lake-wide ebullition dynamics may be modeled without resolving the fine-scale spatial structure of venting.
Scanlon, K.M., and Buczkowski, B.J., 2016, High-resolution geophysical data collected in the Madison Swanson and Steamboat Lumps Marine Protected Areas, Gulf of Mexico in 2000, U.S. Geological Survey 2000-005-FA: U.S. Geological Survey data release . Online at 10.5066/F7JD4TVC
Schattner, U., Lazar, M., Souza, L.A.P., ten Brink, U., and Mahiques, M.M., , Pockmark asymmetry and seafloor currents - case study from Santos basin, offshore Brazil: Geo-Marine Letters . Online at 10.1007/s00367-016-0468-0
Schwab, W.C., Baldwin, W.E., and Denny, J.F., 2016, Assessing the Impact of Hurricanes Irene and Sandy on the Morphology and Modern Sediment Thickness on the Inner Continental Shelf Offshore of Fire Island, New York: U.S. Geologic Survey Open-File Report 2015-1238 . Online at 10.3133/ofr20151238
Sherwood, C.R., 2016, Low-altitude aerial imagery and related field observations associated with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) flights over Coast Guard Beach, Nauset Spit, Nauset Inlet, and Nauset Marsh, Cape Cod National Seashore, Eastham, Massachusetts on 1 March 2016: U.S. Geological Survey data release . Online at 10.5066/F7CN721H
Sherwood, C.R., Montgomery, E.T., Suttles, S.E., and Brosnahan, S.M., 2016, Oceanographic, Atmospheric and Water-Quality Measurements Sandwich Town Neck Beach, 2016: U.S. Geological Survey data release . Online at 10.5066/F7N58JHM
Shimeld, J., Li, Q., Chian, D., Lebedeva-Ivanova, N., Jackson, R., Mosher, D., and Hutchinson,D., 2016, Seismic velocities within the sedimentary succession of the Canada Basin and southern Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean: Evidence for accelerated porosity reduction: Geophysical Journal International , v. 204 , pp. 1-20 . Online at 10.1093/gji/ggv416
Signell, R.P., Camossi, E, 2016, Technical Note: Harmonizing met-ocean model data via standard web services within small research groups: Ocean Science , v. 12 , no. 3 , pp. 633 - 645 . Online at 10.5194/os-12-633-2016
Work over the last decade has resulted in standardised web services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using free technologies that are easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing standardised, service-based tools that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modellers continue to use their existing files and tools, while serving virtual data sets that can be used with standardised tools. The goal of this paper is to convince modellers that a standardised framework is not only useful but can be implemented with modest effort using free software components. We use NetCDF Markup language for data aggregation and standardisation, the THREDDS Data Server for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (MATLAB®) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.
Signell, R.P., Fernandes, F., and Wilcoz, K., 2016, Dynamic Reusable Workflows for Ocean Science: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering , v. 4 , no. 4 . Online at doi:10.3390/jmse4040068
Sturdivant, E., Thieler.R., Zeigler, S., Hines, M., Winslow, L., Walker, J., Read, J., 2016, Biogeomorphic classification and images of shorebird nesting sites on the U.S. Atlantic coast: U.S. Geological Survey data release . Online at 10.5066/F70V89X3
Sun, Y., Chen, C., Beardsley, R.C., Ullman, D., Butman, B., and Lin, H., 2016, Surface Circulation in Block Island Sound and Adjacent Coastal and Shelf Regions: a FVCOM-CODAR Comparison: Progress in Oceanography , v. 143 , pp. 26-45 . Online at 10.1016/j.pocean.2016.02.005
CODAR-derived surface currents in Block Island Sound over the period of June 2000 through September 2008 were compared to currents computed using the Northeast Coastal Ocean Forecast System (NECOFS). The measurement uncertainty of CODAR-derived currents, estimated using statistics of a screened nine-year time series of hourly-averaged flow field, ranged from 3 to 7 cm/s in speed and 4° to 14° in direction. The CODAR-derived and model-computed kinetic energy spectrum densities were in good agreement at subtidal frequencies, but the NECOFS-derived currents were larger by about 28% at semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal frequencies. The short-term (hourly to daily) current variability was dominated by the semidiurnal tides (predominantly the M2 tide), which on average accounted for ∼87% of the total kinetic energy. The diurnal tidal and subtidal variability accounted for ∼4% and ∼9% of the total kinetic energy, respectively. The monthly-averaged difference between the CODAR-derived and model-computed velocities over the study area was 6 cm/s or less in speed and 28° or less in direction over the study period. An EOF analysis for the low-frequency vertically-averaged model current field showed that the water transport in the Block Island Sound region was dominated by modes 1 and 2, which accounted for 89% and 7% of the total variance, respectively. Mode 1 represented a relatively stationary spatial and temporal flow pattern with a magnitude that varied with season. Mode 2 was characterized mainly by a secondary cross-shelf flow and a relatively strong along-shelf flow. Process-oriented model experiments indicated that the relatively stationary flow pattern found in mode 1 was a result of tidal rectification and its magnitude changed with seasonal stratification. Correlation analysis between the flow and wind stress suggested that the cross-shelf water transport and its temporal variability in mode 2 were highly correlated to the surface wind forcing. The mode 2 derived onshore and offshore water transport, and was consistent with wind-driven Ekman theory. The along-shelf water transport over the outer shelf, where a large portion of the water flowed from upstream Nantucket Shoals, was not highly correlated to the surface wind stress.
Suttles, S., Ganju, N., Dickhudt, P., Brosnahan, S., Montgomery, E., Borden, J., and Martini, M., 2016, Oceanographic and Water Quality Measurements in Chincoteague Bay, Maryland, 2014-2015: U.S. Geological Survey data release . Online at 10.5066/F7DF6PBV
Suttles, S.E., Ganju, N.K., Montgomery, E.T., Dickhudt, P., Borden, J., Brosnahan, S., Martini, M, 2016, Summary of Oceanographic and Water-Quality Measurements in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, 2014-2015: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2016-1149 . Online at 10.3133/ofr20161149
Sweeney, Pendleton, Ackerman, Andrews, Baldwin, Danforth, Foster, Thieler, Brothers, 2016, High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Delmarva Peninsula 2015, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2015-001-FA, version 2.0: U.S. Geological Survey data release . Online at 10.5066/F7P55KK3
Sweeney, Pendleton, Ackerman, Andrews, Baldwin, Danforth, Foster, Thieler, Brothers, 2016, High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Delmarva Peninsula 2015, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2015-001-FA, version 3.0: U.S. Geological Survey data release . Online at http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/field-activity-data/2015-001-FA/
Szymczycha, B., Kroeger, K.D., and Pempkowiak, J., 2016, Significance of groundwater discharge along the coast of Poland as a source of dissolved metals to the southern Baltic Sea: Marine Pollution Bulletin , v. 109 , no. 1
Thieler, E.R., Zeigler, S.L., Winslow, L.A., Hines, M.K., Read, J.S., Walker, J.I.,, 2016, Smartphone-Based Distributed Data Collection Enables Rapid Assessment of Shorebird Habitat Suitability: PLoS ONE . Online at 10.1371/journal.pone.0164979
Todd, B.J., Shaw, J., and Valentine, P.C., 2016, Submarine glacial landforms on the Bay of Fundy-northern Gulf of Maine continental shelf: Geological Society of London, Memoirs . Online at http://mem.lyellcollection.org/content/46/1/429
Valentine, P.C., Carman, M.R., and Blackwood, D., 2016, Observations of recruitment and colonization by tunicates and associated invertebrates using giant one-meter2 recruitment plates at Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Management of Biological Invasions , v. 7 . Online at http://www.reabic.net/journals/mbi/2016/Issue1.aspx
Large recruitment plates measuring 1 x 1 m were deployed over an 18-month period from September 2013 to March 2015 for the purpose of documenting recruitment and colonization processes of marine invertebrate species at Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Each side of two plates was subdivided into 16 subareas (25 x 25 cm), and an observational strategy was developed whereby, at approximately two-week intervals, a different subarea was cleaned. Using this approach, we were able to photographically document species recruitment and growth interactions. Water temperature records from the site show that steady warming and cooling between 3 and 20����¯�¿�½������° C changed at a mean rate of 0.2 ����¯�¿�½������° C d-1. However, temperature changes during the coolest and warmest parts of the temperature cycle were highly variable. In 2014, between the first and last occurrence of 0����¯�¿�½������° C, temperatures were ≤0����¯�¿�½������° C 15 percent of the time, but in 2015 temperatures were ≤0����¯�¿�½������° C 93 percent of the time. In 2014, between the first and last occurrence of 21����¯�¿�½������° C, temperatures were ≥21����¯�¿�½������° C 88 percent of the time, and this warm period correlated with the disappearance of the hydroid Ectopleura crocea, the solitary tunicates Ascidiella aspersa and Ciona intestinalis, and the 2013 generation of Botrylloides violaceus. In Woods Hole, large plates provided enough space to accommodate both fast- and slow-colonizing species, resulting in the establishment of a diverse assemblage that was observed over a long time period. The most successful colonizing species had relatively long reproductive and recruitment periods, grew rapidly, repelled settlement onto their surfaces by larvae of any species, defended themselves against overgrowth by any species, overwintered, and lived a long time. Of the three dominant species observed in this study, the colonial tunicates Didemnum vexillum and Botrylloides violaceus had these qualities; the encrusting colonial bryozoan Schizoporella unicornis had all but one, it grew more slowly than the others. Barnacles constituted the only biological substrate that was effectively colonized by other species, both by larval recruitment and overgrowth. In Woods Hole, after a substrate had become fully colonized, there was very little opportunity for new recruitment or colony growth until new substrate opened after the death of colonies and individuals and the disappearance of biogenic structures such as amphipod tubes. An understanding of colonization processes utilized by invasive species allows prediction of their potential effects on ecosystems in areas where they are not yet present. released february2016
Wang, Z.A., Kroeger, K.D., Ganju, N.K., Eagle-Gonneea, M., and Chu, S.N., 2016, Intertidal Salt Marshes as an Important Source of Inorganic Carbon and Buffering Capacity to the Coastal Ocean: Limnology & Oceanography , v. 61 , no. 5
Weinsten, Navarrete, Ruppel, Weber, Leonte, Kellermann, Arrington, Valentine, Scranton, Kessler, 2016, Determining the flux of methane into Hudson Canyon at the edge of methane clathrate hydrate stability: G3 . Online at 10.1002/2016GC006421
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