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Geologic Interpretation and Multibeam Bathymetry of the Sea Floor in the Vicinity of the Race, Eastern Long Island Sound


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Banerjee, I., and McDonald, B.C., 1975, Nature of esker sedimentation, in Jopling, A.C., McDonald, B.C., eds., Glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sedimentation: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publcation, v. 23, p. 132-154.

Bertoni, R., Dowling, J.J., and Frankel, L., 1977, Fresh-water lake sediments beneath Block Island Sound: Geology, v. 5, p. 631-635.

Dalrymple, R.W., Knight, R.J., and Lambiase, J.J., 1978, Bedforms and their hydraulic stability relationships in a tidal environment, Bay of Fundy, Canada: Nature, v. 275, p. 100-104.

Fuller, M.L., 1905, Geology of Fishers Island, New York: Geological Society America Bulletin, v. 16, p. 367-390.

Fuller, M.L., 1914, The geology of Long Island, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 82.

Garner, H.F., 1974, The origin of landscapes - a synthesis of geomorphology: Oxford University Press, New York.

Goldsmith, R., 1962, Surficial geology of the New London quadrangle, Connecticut - New York: U.S. Geological Survey Map GQ-176.

Goldsmith, R., 1982, Recessional moraines and ice retreat in southeastern Connecticut, in Larson, G.J., Stone, B.D., eds., Late Wisconsinan glaciation of New England: Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, Iowa, p. 61-76.

Grim, M.S., Drake, C.L., and Hertzler, J.R., 1970, Sub-bottom study of Long Island Sound: Geological Society America Bulletin, v. 81, p. 649-666.

Hermes, O.D., Gromet, L.P., and Murray, D.P., 1994, Bedrock geologic map of Rhode Island: Office of the Rhode Island State Geologist, Rhode Island Map Series no. 1, scale 1:100,000, 1 sheet.

Kimball, C.W., 2003, Fateful steamer collision could answer question of mystery ship in the Race: The Day, New London, Conn., Tuesday, November 17 edition, p. 1.

Lewis, R.S., and Needell, S.W., 1987, Maps showing stratigraphic framework and Quaternary geologic history of eastern Long Island Sound: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1939-A, scale 1:125,000, 2 sheets.

Lewis, R.S., and Stone, J.R., 1991, Late Quaternary stratigraphy and depositional history of the Long Island Sound Basin; Connecticut and New York: Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 11, p. 1-23.

Lewis, R.S., and DiGiacomo-Cohen, M.L., 2000, A review of the geologic framework of the Long Island Sound basin with some observations relating to postglacial sedimentation: Journal of Coastal Reseach, v. 16, p. 522-532.

Ludwick, J.C., 1972, Migration of tidal sand waves in Chesapeake Bay entrance, in Swift, D.J.P., Duane, D.B., Pilkey, O.H., eds., Shelf sediment transport; process and pattern: Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross, Stroudsburg, Penn., p. 377-410.

McKee, E.D., 1966, Structures of dunes at White Sands National Monument, New Mexico (and a comparison with structures of dunes from other selected areas): Sedimentology, v. 7, p. 1-69.

McMaster, R.L., La Chance, T.P., and Garrison, L.E., 1968, Seismic-reflection studies in Block Island and Rhode Island Sounds: American Association Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 52, p. 465-474.

McMaster, R.L., and Ashraf, A., 1973, Subbottom basement drainage system of inner continental shelf off southern New England: Geological Society America Bulletin, v. 84, p. 187-190.

Mosher, D.C., and Thomson, R.E., 2002, The Foreslope Hills -- large-scale, fine-grained sediment waves in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia: Marine Geology, v. 192, p. 275-295.

Needell, S.W., and Lewis, R.S., 1984, Geology of Block Island Sound, Rhode Island and New York: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1621, scale 1:125,000, 2 sheets.

National Ocean Service, 1994, Long Island Sound - eastern part: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C., Chart 12354, 33rd edition, scale 1:80,000, 1 sheet.

Pingree, R.D., 1978, The formation of the Shambles and other banks by stirring of the seas: Journal Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, v. 58, p. 211-226.

Poppe, L.J., Lewis, R., Denny, J.F., Parolski, K.F., and DiGiacomo-Cohen, M.L., 1998, Sidescan sonar image, surficial geologic interpretation, and bathymetry of Fishers Island Sound, Connecticut, New York, and Rhode Island: U.S. Geological Survey Investigations Map I-2640, 2 sheets, scale 1:12,500 and 1:15,000.

Poppe, L.J., Lewis, R.S., Signell, R.P., Knebel, H.J., Persaud, M., Denny, J.F., Parolski, K.F., DiGiacomo-Cohen, M.L., 1999, Sidescan sonar image, surficial geologic interpretation, and bathymetry of the Long Island Sound sea floor off Roanoke Point, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Map I-2692, 2 sheets, scale 1:15,000 and 1:20,000.

Poppe, L.J., Knebel, H.J., Mlodzinska, Z.J., Hastings, M.E., and Seekins, B.A., 2000, The distribution of surficial sediments in Long Island Sound and adjacent waters; texture and total organic carbon: Journal Coastal Research, v. 16, p. 567-574

Poppe, L.J., Paskevich, V.F., Lewis, R.S., and DiGiacomo-Cohen, M.L., 2002, Geologic framework data from Long Island Sound, 1981-1990; a digital data release: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-002, DVD-ROM.

Poppe, L.J., Foster, D.S., and Danforth, W.W., 2006a, Character and distribution of exposed glaciodeltaic deposits off outer Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and their effects on hydrogeology and benthic habitats: Geo-Marine Letters, v. 26, no. 1, p. 51-57.

Poppe, L.J., DiGiacomo-Cohen, M.L., Smith, S.M., Stewart, H.F., and Forfinski, N.A., 2006b, Seafloor character and sedimentary processes in eastern Long Island Sound and western Block Island Sound: Geo-Marine Letters, v. 26, p. 59-68.

Poppe, L.J., Ackerman, S.D., Doran, E.F., Beaver, A.J., Crocker, J.M., and Schattgen, P.T., 2006c, Interpolation of reconnaissance multibeam bathymetry from north-central Long Island Sound: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1145, DVD-ROM. Also available online at

Poppe, L.J., Ackerman, S.D., Doran, E.F., Moser, M.S., Stewart, H.F., Forfinski, N.A., Gardner, U.L., and Keene, J.A., 2006d, Geologic interpretation and multibeam bathymetry of the sea floor in southeastern Long Island: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1059, DVD-ROM. Also available online at

Reineck, H.E., and Singh, I.B., 1980, Depositional sedimentary environments: Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 549 p.

Rodgers, J. (compiler), 1985, Bedrock geological map of Connecticut: Connecticut Natural Resources Atlas Series, Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey, Hartford, Conn., scale 1:125,000.

Schafer, J.P., and Hartshorn, J.H., 1965, The Quaternary of New England, in Wright, H.E., Frey, D.G., eds., The Quaternary of the United States. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, p. 113-128.

Signell, R.P., List, J.H., and Farris, A.S., 2000, Bottom currents and sediment transport in Long Island Sound; a modeling study: Journal Coastal Research, v. 16, p. 551-566.

Sirkin, L.A., 1976, Block Island, Rhode Island - evidence of fluctuation of the late Pleistocene ice margin: Geological Society America Bulleitn, v. 87, p. 574-580.

Sirkin, L.A., 1982, Wisconsinan glaciation of Long Island, New York to Block Island, Rhode Island, in Larson, G.J., Stone, B.D., eds., Late Wisconsinan glaciation of New England: Dubuque, Iowa, Kendall/Hunt, p. 35-60.

Stone, B.D., and Borns, H.W., 1986, Pleistocene glacial and interglacial stratigraphy of New England, Long Island and adjacent Georges Bank and Gulf of Maine, in Sibrava, B., Bowen, D.Q., and Richmond, G.M., eds., Quaternary glaciations in the northern hemisphere: Pergamon Press, Oxford, p. 39-52.

Stone, J.R., Schafer, J.P., London, E.H., DiGiacomo-Cohen M.L., Lewis, R.S. and Thompson, W.B., 2005, Quaternary geologic map of Connecticut and Long Island Sound Basin: U.S. Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Map 2784, 68 p., 2 sheets, scale 1:125,000.

Suter, R., de Laguna, W., Perlmutter, N.M., and Brashears, M.L., 1949, Mapping of geologic formations and aquifers of Long Island, New York: New York Water Power and Control Commission Bull GW-18.

ten Brink, U.S., Danforth, W.W., Polloni, C.F., Andrews, B., Llanes Estrada, P., Smith S.M., Parker, E., and Uozumi, T., 2004, New seafloor map of the Puerto Rico Trench helps assess earthquake and tsunami hazards in the northeast Caribbean: Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, v. 85, p. 349.

Todd, B.J., Fader, G.B., Courtney, R.C., and Pickrill, R.A., 1999, Quaternary geology and surficial sediment processes, Browns Bank, Scotian Shelf, based on multibeam bathymetry: Marine Geology, v. 162, p. 165-214.

Welsh, B.L., 1993, Physical oceanography of Long Island Sound: an ecological perspective, in Van Patten, M.S., ed., 1992 Long Island Sound Research Conference Proceedings, CT-SG-93-03, p. 23-33.

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