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Publications by year, USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center

All Publications by WHCMSC Authors for the year 2014

Anderson, D.M., Keafer, B.A., Kleindinst, J.L., McGillicuddy, D.J., Martin, J.L., Norton, K., Pilskaln, C.H., Smith, J.L., Sherwood, C.R., and Butman, B, 2014, Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms: Deep Sea Research II , v. 103 , pp. 6-26 . Online at 10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.10.002
Andrews, B.D., ten Brink, U.S., Danforth, W., Chaytor, J.D., Granja-Bruna, J.L., and Carbo-Gorosabel, A., 2014, Bathymetric Terrain Model of the Puerto Rico Trench and Northeast Caribbean Region for Marine Geological Investigations.: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013-1125 . Online at 10.3133/ofr20131125
Aretxabaleta, A.L., Butman, B., and Ganju, N.K, 2014, Water-level response in back-barrier bays unchanged following Hurricane Sandy: Geophysical Research Letters , v. 41 , no. 9 , pp. 30163-3171 . Online at 10.1002/2014GL059957
On 28�30 October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused severe flooding along portions of the northeast coast of the United States and cut new inlets across barrier islands in New Jersey and New York. About 30% of the 20 highest daily maximum water levels observed between 2007 and 2013 in Barnegat and Great South Bay occurred in 5 months following Hurricane Sandy. Hurricane Sandy provided a rare opportunity to determine whether extreme events alter systems protected by barrier islands, leaving the mainland more vulnerable to flooding. Comparisons between water levels before and after Hurricane Sandy at bay stations and an offshore station show no significant differences in the transfer of sea level fluctuations from offshore to either bay following Sandy. The post-Hurricane Sandy bay high water levels reflected offshore sea levels caused by winter storms, not by barrier island breaching or geomorphic changes within the bays.
Arnold, W.A., Longnecker, K., Kroeger, K.D., Kujawinski, E.B.,, 2014, Molecular signature of organic nitrogen in septic-impacted groundwater: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts , v. 16 , no. 10 , pp. 2400 - 2407 . Online at 10.1039/c4em00289j
Dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen levels are elevated in aquatic systems due to anthropogenic activities. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) arises from various sources, and its impact could be more clearly constrained if specific sources were identified and if the molecular-level composition of DON were better understood. In this work, the pharmaceutical carbamazepine was used to identify septic-impacted groundwater in a coastal watershed. Using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry data, the nitrogen-containing features of the dissolved organic matter in septic-impacted and non-impacted samples were compared. The septic-impacted groundwater samples have a larger abundance of nitrogen-containing formulas. Impacted samples have additional DON features in the regions ascribed as 'protein-like' and 'lipid-like' in van Krevelen space and have more intense nitrogen-containing features in a specific region of a carbon versus mass plot. These features are potential indicators of dissolved organic nitrogen arising from septic effluents, and this work suggests that ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry is a valuable tool to identify and characterize sources of DON.
Brothers, D.S., Ruppel, C., Kluesner, J.W., Chaytor, J.D., tenBrink, U.S., Hill, J.C., Andrews, B.D., and Flores, C, 2014, Seabed fluid expulsion along upper slope and outer shelf of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin: Geophysical Research Letters , v. 41 , no. 1 . Online at 10.1002/2013GL058048
Buchholtz ten Brink, M R, Mecray, E L, Varekamp, J.C., Lauriat, K.,, 2001, Historical records of mercury contamination in sediment cores in Connecticut and Long Island Sound [abs.], Symposium on Environmental Records from Large Estuaries along the Northeastern U.S. Seaboard: Geological Society of America 36th Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs, Northeast Section , v. 33 , no. 1
About 400 surface and core sediment samples from a sampling grid in Long Island Sound (LIS) and 16 cores from salt marshes and riverine wetlands were analyzed for mercury (Hg), Clostridium perfringens (a sewage tracer) and many other chemical and physical parameters. The Hg concentrations in LIS surface sediments vary between 30 and 650 ppb, with the highest values in the western end of LIS. A trend of increasing Hg concentrations to the west correlates with increasing abundances of fine-grained sediment and organic carbon; normalization of the Hg data to mean grain size still shows a pronounced east-west trend. The linear relationship between C. perfringens and Hg in sediments from the New York Bight, where sewage disposal is a well defined source, was used to estimate the contribution of waste water treatment plants to Hg in LIS sediments. Many LIS surface samples have between 10-40 percent sewage-derived Hg, with values up to 80 percent in western-most LIS. The remaining Hg is largely imported from the surrounding watersheds with fine-grained sediments, and hence is a focused flux of the integrated regional atmospheric Hg deposition. The direct atmospheric deposition of Hg into LIS is only a small part of the overall LIS Hg sediment budget. The east-west trend in Hg concentration is thus due to fine sediment focussing in western LIS as well as additional Hg sources in that region (mainly sewage treatment facilities). Sediment cores have contamination profiles with background Hg values of 50-100 ppb, and peak values between 200-500 ppb. The Hg concentrations decrease in sediments deposited over the last 30 years. The highest Hg concentrations (1200 ppb) are found in the Housatonic River basin. The onset of Hg contamination in the cores (around 1840 A.D.) coincides with the first elevated C. perfringens levels, indicating an anthropogenic origin for the Hg contamination.
Buczkowski, B.J., 2014, The USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center Samples Repository:
Chaytor, J.D., and ten Brink, U.S, 2014, Slope failures and timing of turbidity flows north of Puerto Rico:
Chaytor, Jason D., ten Brink, Uri S., 2014, Sedimentation in low-latitude deep-water carbonate basins, Anegada Passage, Northeast Caribbean: Basin Research , pp. 1-26 . Online at 10.1111/bre.12076
Cross, V.A., Bratton, J.F., Michael, H.A., Kroeger, K.D., Green, A., and Bergeron, E., 2014, Continuous Resistivity Profiling and Seismic-Reflection Data Collected in April 2010 from Indian River Bay, Delaware: U.S.Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1039 . Online at 10.3133/ofr20111039
Defne, Z., Ganju, N, 2014, Quantifying the residence time and flushing characteristics of a shallow, back-barrier estuary: application of hydrodynamic and particle tracking models: Estuaries and Coasts , v. 38 , no. 5 , pp. 1719-1734 . Online at 10.1007/s12237-014-9885-3
Denny, J. F, Danforth, W.W., Worley, C.R., and Irwin, B.J, 2014, High-resolution geophysical and sample data collected in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire in 2005, USGS Field Activity 2005-004-FA: U.S. Geological Survey data release . Online at 10.5066/F71N7Z4H
Ganju, N., Aretxabaleta, A., and Miselis, J., 2014, Physical and biogeochemical controls on light attenuation in a eutrophic, back-barrier estuary: Biogeosciences . Online at 10.5194/bgd-11-12183-2014
Hartwell, S.R., Wingfield, D.K., Allwardt, A.O., Wong, F.L., and Lightsom, F.L, 2014, Polygons of Global Undersea Features for Geographic Searches (CZMP_counties_2009.shp): U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2014-1040 . Online at 10.3133/ofr20141040
Hoy, S., Chaytor, J.D., and ten Brink, U.S., 2014, Core data from offshore Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014-1227 . Online at 10.3133/ofr20141227
Lightsom, F., 2014, U.S. Geological Survey Information for Marine Planners and Resource Managers:
McMullen, K.Y., Poppe, L.J., Ackerman, S.D., Blackwood, D.S., and Woods, D.A., 2014, Sea-Floor Geology in Northwestern Block Island Sound, Rhode Island: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2014-1018 . Online at 10.3133/ofr20141018
McMullen, K.Y., Poppe, L.J., Danforth, W.W., Blackwood, D.S., Clos, A.R., and Parker, C.E., 2014, Sea-Floor Morphology and Sedimentary Environments of Western Block Island Sound, Northeast of Gardiners Island, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2014-1160 . Online at 10.3133/ofr20141160
Nelson, J., He, R., Warner, J.C., and Bane, J, 2014, Air-Sea Interactions during Strong Winter Extratropical Storms: Ocean Dynamics , v. 64 , no. 9 , pp. 1233 1246 . Online at 10.1007/s10236-014-0745-2
A high-resolution, regional coupled atmosphere–ocean model is used to investigate strong air–sea interactions during a rapidly developing extratropical cyclone (ETC) off the east coast of the USA. In this two-way coupled system, surface momentum and heat fluxes derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting model and sea surface temperature (SST) from the Regional Ocean Modeling System are exchanged via the Model Coupling Toolkit. Comparisons are made between the modeled and observed wind velocity, sea level pressure, 10 m air temperature, and sea surface temperature time series, as well as a comparison between the model and one glider transect. Vertical profiles of modeled air temperature and winds in the marine atmospheric boundary layer and temperature variations in the upper ocean during a 3-day storm period are examined at various cross-shelf transects along the eastern seaboard. It is found that the air–sea interactions near the Gulf Stream are important for generating and sustaining the ETC. In particular, locally enhanced winds over a warm sea (relative to the land temperature) induce large surface heat fluxes which cool the upper ocean by up to 2 °C, mainly during the cold air outbreak period after the storm passage. Detailed heat budget analyses show the ocean-to-atmosphere heat flux dominates the upper ocean heat content variations. Results clearly show that dynamic air–sea interactions affecting momentum and buoyancy flux exchanges in ETCs need to be resolved accurately in a coupled atmosphere–ocean modeling framework.
Obelcz, J., Brothers, D., ten Brink, U., Chaytor, J., Worley, C., and Moore, E, 2014, Chirp seismic-reflection data from Baltimore, Washington, and Norfolk Canyons, U.S. mid-Atlantic margin: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2014-1118 . Online at 10.3133/ofr20141118
Pendleton, E., Ackerman,S., Baldwin, W., Danforth, W., Foster,D., Thieler, R.,and Brothers,L., 2014, High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Delmarva Peninsula 2014, USGS Field Activity 2014-002-FA: . Online at 10.5066/F7MW2F60
Pendleton, E.A., Andrews, B.D., Ackerman, S.D., and Twichell, D.C., 2014, Bathymetry of Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3286 . Online at 10.3133/sim3286
Pendleton, E.A., Andrews, B.D., Danforth, W.W., and Foster, D.S, 2014, High-Resolution Geophysical Data From Sand Shoals of Vineyard Sound and the Sea Floor Surrounding the Eastern Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013-1020 . Online at 10.3133/ofr20131020
Pendleton, E.A., Denny, J.F., Danforth, W.W., Baldwin, W.E., and Irwin, B.J., 2014, High-Resolution Swath Interferometric Data Collected within Muskegat Channel, Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1258 . Online at 10.3133/ofr20121258
Pendleton, E.P., Schwab, W, 2014, Geologic Mapping of the Massachusetts Sea Floor:
Poppe, L.J., McMullen, K.Y., Danforth, W.W., Blankenship, M.A., Clos, A.R., Glomb, K.A., Lewit, P.G., Nadeau, M.A., Wood, D.A., and Parker, C.E., 2014, Combined Multibeam Bathymetry Data from Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound; A Regional Perspective: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2014-1012 . Online at 10.3133/ofr20141012
Porubsky, W., Weston, N., Moore, W., Ruppel, C., Joye, S, 2014, Dynamics of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and associated fluxes of dissolved nutrients, carbon, and trace gases to the coastal zone (Okatee River estuary, South Carolina): Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta (GCA) . Online at 10.1016/j.gca.2013.12.030
Schwab, W.C., Baldwin, W.E., Denny, J.F., Hapke, C.J., Gayes, P.T., List, J.H., and Warner, J.C., 2014, Modification of the Quaternary Stratigraphic Framework of the Inner-Continental Shelf Offshore of Fire Island by Holocene Marine Transgression: Marine Geology , v. 355 , pp. 346-360 . Online at 10.1016/j.margeo.2014.06.011
Skarke, A., Ruppel, C., Kodis, M., Brothers, D., and Lobecker, E., 2014, Widespread Methane Leakage from the Seafloor on the Northern US Atlantic Margin: Nature Geoscience . Online at 10.1038/ngeo2232
Global methane emissions from the seafloor have critical implications for atmospheric methane inputs1, ocean acidification and de-oxygenation2,3, the distribution of chemosynthetic communities, and energy resources. Nevertheless, seafloor methane flux estimates vary over orders of magnitude (0.4-48 Tg yr-1)4 , in part because many seep-prone settings remain poorly surveyed. Here we use geophysical data to identify ~570 gas plumes on the US Atlantic margin (USAM), dramatically expanding the geographic distribution of methane seeps beyond the three previously-known locations. Most seeps originate at water depths (200-600 m) that bracket the updip limit for methane hydrate stability. Massive methane release from dissociating gas hydrates has been predicted on this margin5, but these are the first observations of widespread seepage at appropriate water depths. Over a broader range of water depths (~50 m to 1700 m), methane emissions from the newly-identified seeps are linked to canyon formation, groundwater discharge, and gas flux through fractured rocks. Contemporary seepage may be triggered by warming intermediate waters, but observed chemosynthetic communities and authigenic carbonates require longer-lived emissions. Estimated methane flux from the USAM seeps is 2.7 Gg yr-1, less than 1% of minimum estimated global methane flux from seafloor to ocean.
Warner, J.C., 2014, Coastal Change Processes:
Warner, J.C., List, J.H., Schwab, W.C., Voulgaris, G., Armstrong, B., Marshall, N, 2014, Inner-shelf circulation and sediment dynamics on a series of shoreface connected ridges offshore of Fire Island, NY: Ocean Dynamics , v. 64 , no. 12 . Online at 10.1007/s10236-014-0781-y
Winters, W.J., Wilcox-Cline, R.W., Long, P., Dewri, S.K., Kumar, P., Kerr, L., and Stern, L, 2014, Comparison of Physical and Geotechnical Properties of Gas-Hydrate Bearing Sediments from Offshore India and Other Gas-Hydrate Reservoir Systems: Journal of Marine and Petroleum Geology , v. 58, Part A , pp. 104-137 . Online at 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2014.07.024
The sediment characteristics of hydrate-bearing reservoirs profoundly affect the formation, distribution, and morphology of gas hydrate. The presence and type of gas, porewater chemistry, fluid migration, and subbottom temperature may govern the hydrate formation process, but it is the host sediment that commonly dictates final hydrate habit, and whether hydrate may be economically developed. In this paper, the physical properties of hydrate-bearing regions offshore eastern India (Krishna-Godavari and Mahanadi Basins) and the Andaman Islands, determined from Expedition NGHP-01 cores, are compared to each other, well logs, and published results of other hydrate reservoirs. Properties from the hydrate-free Kerala-Konkan basin off the west coast of India are also presented. Coarser-grained reservoirs (permafrost-related and marine) may contain high gas-hydrate-pore saturations, while finer-grained reservoirs may contain low-saturation disseminated or more complex gas-hydrates, including nodules, layers, and high-angle planar and rotational veins. However, even in these fine-grained sediments, gas hydrate preferentially forms in coarser sediment or fractures, when present. The presence of hydrate in conjunction with other geologic processes may be responsible for sediment porosity being nearly uniform for almost 500 m off the Andaman Islands.
Yoshinaga, M.Y., Holler, T., Goldhammer, T., Wegener, G., Pohlman, J.W., Brunner, B., Kuypers, M., Hinrichs, K.U., and Elvert, M, 2014, Carbon isotope equilibration during sulphate-limited anaerobic oxidation of methane: Nature Geoscience . Online at 10.1038/ngeo2069
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