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U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1357

Sea-Floor Character and Surface Processes in the Vicinity of Quicks Hole, Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts


List of Figures

Skip past contents information
Title Page
Introduction
Setting
Methods
Overview
Interpretation
Discussion
Data Catalog
Acknowledgments
References
List of Figures
Bottom Photographs
Sediment Data
Contacts
Disclaimers
Figure 1.  Index map of Cape Cod and the Islands. Figure 1. Index map of Cape Cod and the Islands showing the extent of NOAA survey H11076 of Quicks Hole, Massachusetts (red polygon).
Figure 2. Regional paleogeographic map of Cape Cod and the Islands. Figure 2. Regional paleogeographic map of Cape Cod and the Islands showing the extent of the Laurentide ice sheet about 20 ka. Map modified from Oldale and Barlow (1986).
Figure 3.  Map of the Elizabeth Islands showing the direction of tidal flow during a flood tide. Figure 3. Map of the Elizabeth Islands showing the direction of tidal flow during a flood tide and the locations of Quicks Hole and Lucas and Middle Ground Shoals.
Figure 4. Regional paleogeographic map of Cape Cod and the Islands. Figure 4. Regional paleogeographic map of Cape Cod and the Islands showing the extent of the Laurentide ice sheet just prior to 18 ka. Map modified from Oldale and Barlow (1986).
Figure 5.   Segment of high-resolution seismic-reflection Uniboom profile. Figure 5. Segment of high-resolution seismic-reflection Uniboom profile (Robb and Oldale, 1977) and interpretation of ASTERIAS 73005 line 16. Location of seismic profile shown in figure 21.
Figure 6. Segment of high-resolution seismic-reflection Uniboom profile. Figure 6. Segment of high-resolution seismic-reflection Uniboom profile (Robb and Oldale, 1977) and interpretation of ASTERIAS 73005 line 17. Location of seismic profile shown in figure 21.
Image showing NOAA Launch 1014 being deployed from the NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON. Figure 7. Image showing NOAA Launch 1014 being deployed from the NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON.
Figure 8.  Image showing a starboard-side view of NOAA Launch 1014 afloat. Figure 8. Image showing a starboard-side view of NOAA Launch 1014 afloat.
Figure 9. Port-side view of the NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON at sea. Figure 9. Port-side view of the NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON at sea. Note that the 30-foot survey launch normally stowed on this side of the ship has been deployed.
Figure 10.  Image showing the Reson 8125 multibeam transducer mounted to the hull of the NOAA Launch 1014. Figure 10. Image showing the Reson 8125 multibeam transducer mounted to the hull of the NOAA Launch 1014.
Figure 11.  Image showing the Reson Seabat 8101 hull mounted in the keel cut out of NOAA Launch 1005. Figure 11. Image showing the Reson Seabat 8101 hull mounted in the keel cut out of NOAA Launch 1005.
Figure 12.  Image showing a Klein 5250 sidescan sonar system mounted on the hull of NOAA Launch 1014. Figure 12. Image showing a Klein 5250 sidescan sonar system mounted on the hull of NOAA Launch 1014.
Figure 13.  CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) profiler shown on the deck of the NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON. Data derived from frequent deployments of this device were used to perfom sound-velocity corrections on the multibeam data. Figure 13. CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) profiler shown on the deck of the NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON. Data derived from frequent deployments of this device were used to perfom sound-velocity corrections on the multibeam data.
Figure 14.  Map showing the station locations used to verify the acoustic data with bottom sampling and photography during the RAFAEL 05007 cruise. Figure 14. Map showing the station locations used to verify the acoustic data with bottom sampling and photography during the RAFAEL 05007 cruise.
Figure 15.  Image shows a port-side view of the USGS research vessel RAFAEL that was used to collect bottom photography and sediment samples in Quicks Hole, Massachusetts. Figure 15. Image shows a port-side view of the USGS research vessel RAFAEL that was used to collect bottom photography and sediment samples in Quicks Hole, Massachusetts.
Figure 16.  View of the small SEABOSS, a modified Van Veen grab equipped with still and video photographic systems. Figure 16. View of the small SEABOSS, a modified Van Veen grab equipped with still and video photographic systems.
Figure 17.  Correlation chart showing the relationships between phi sizes, millimeter diameters, size classifications, and ASTM and Tyler sieve sizes. Figure 17. Correlation chart showing the relationships between phi sizes, millimeter diameters, size classifications (Wentworth, 1922), and ASTM and Tyler sieve sizes. Chart also shows the corresponding intermediate diameters, grains per milligram, settling velocities, and threshold velocities for traction.
Figure 18.  Sediment classification scheme from Shepard (1954), as modified by Schlee (1973). Figure 18. Sediment classification scheme from Shepard (1954), as modified by Schlee (1973).
Figure 19. Digital terrain model (DTM) of the sea floor produced from multibeam bathymetry collected during NOAA survey H11076 of Quicks Hole, Massachusetts. Figure 19. Digital terrain model (DTM) of the sea floor produced from multibeam bathymetry collected during NOAA survey H11076 of Quicks Hole, Massachusetts. Image is sun-illuminated from the north and vertically exaggerated 5x. Hotter colors are shallower areas; cooler colors are deeper areas. See key for depth ranges.
Figure 20.  Map showing the sidescan sonar imagery produced from data collected during NOAA survey H11076 of Quicks Hole, Massachusetts. Figure 20. Map showing the sidescan sonar imagery produced from data collected during NOAA survey H11076 of Quicks Hole, Massachusetts. Light tones are hard returns and generally coarser grained sediments; dark tones are softer returns and generally finer grained sediments.
Figure 21. Interpretation of the DTM and sidescan sonar mosaic from NOAA survey H11076 of Quicks Hole. Shown are the areas characterized by moraine, sand waves, and low backscatter. Figure 21. Interpretation of the DTM and sidescan sonar mosaic from NOAA survey H11076 of Quicks Hole. Shown are the areas characterized by moraine, sand waves, and low backscatter. Also shown are the net sediment transport directions deduced from sand-wave and scour mark asymmetry and the locations of anchor scars, shipwrecks, trawl marks, and seismic profiles shown in figure 5 and figure 6.
Figure 22.  Map showing the boundary of the acoustic data from NOAA survey H11076 of Quicks Hole. Figure 22. Map showing the boundary of the acoustic data from NOAA survey H11076 of Quicks Hole and the locations of the detailed planar, perspective, and comparative views of the multibeam DTM and sidescan sonar mocaic shown in other figures.
Figure 23.  Detailed planar view of the bouldery sea floor south of Fox Point on Nashawena Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Figure 23. Detailed planar view of the bouldery sea floor south of Fox Point on Nashawena Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. These boulders are associated with outcrops of glacial drift, and are probably lag deposits of the till that is exposed onshore in the Buzzards Bay moraine. Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 24.  Detailed planar view of the bouldery sea floor north of Pasque Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Figure 24. Detailed planar view of the bouldery sea floor north of Pasque Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. These boulders are associated with outcrops of glacial drift, and are probably lag deposits of the till that is exposed onshore in the Buzzards Bay moraine. Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 25.  Detailed planar view of the bouldery sea floor on the elongate bathymetric high extending north of Quicks Hole. Figure 25. Detailed planar view of the bouldery sea floor on the elongate bathymetric high extending north of Quicks Hole. Large boulder, locally known as Lone Rock, exceeds 11 m in diameter. Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 26.   Detailed planar view of the sidescan sonar mosaic from north of Nashawena Island showing representative backscatter tones. Figure 26. Detailed planar view of the sidescan sonar mosaic from north of Nashawena Island showing representative backscatter tones. Dark tones represent low backscatter and generally finer grained sediments; light tones represent high backscatter and generally coarser grained sediment; and complex patches of high and low backscatter with individual high-backscatter targets (boulders). Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 27.  Detailed planar view of the sidescan sonar mosaic from north of Nashawena Island. Figure 27. Detailed planar view of the sidescan sonar mosaic from north of Nashawena Island showing alternating bands of high and low backscatter ("tiger-stripe") pattern indicative of sand waves. Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 28.  Map showing the station locations used to verify the acoustic data. Figure 28. Map showing the station locations used to verify the acoustic data color coded for sediment texture. Hotter colors are coarser grained sediment; cooler colors are finer grained sediments. See key for sediment classifications.
Figure 29.   Map showing the interpreted distribution of surficial sediment within NOAA survey H11076. Figure 29. Map showing the interpreted distribution of surficial sediment within NOAA survey H11076. See key for sediment classifications.
Figure 30.  Map showing the interpreted distribution of sedimentary environments within NOAA survey H11076. Figure 30. Map showing the interpreted distribution of sedimentary environments within NOAA survey H11076. See key for environments.
Figure 31.   Detailed planar view of the bedforms south of Pasque Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Figure 31. Detailed planar view of the bedforms south of Pasque Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Note the different crest-line orientations between the sand waves and megaripples, and the faint scour depression originating from the shipwreck. Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 32. Detailed perspective view of the bedforms south of Nashawena Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Figure 32. Detailed perspective view of the bedforms south of Nashawena Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Note that the stoss slopes face east indicating net westward transport. Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 33. Detailed planar view of the bedforms south of Pasque Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Figure 33. Detailed planar view of the bedforms south of Pasque Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Note that crest-line bifurcations are most common along the edge of a sand wave field. Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 34. Detailed planar view of the barchanoid sand waves south of Pasque Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Figure 34. Detailed planar view of the barchanoid sand waves south of Pasque Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Note that barchanoid sand waves are concave westward indicating net westward transport. Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 35.  Detailed perspective view of the barchanoid sand waves south of Pasque Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Figure 35. Detailed perspective view of the barchanoid sand waves south of Pasque Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Note that megaripples are present on the stoss slopes of the barchanoid sand waves, and that the troughs are scoured below the surrounding sea floor. Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 36.  Detailed comparative view of the crest line from the largest sand wave south of Pasque Island. Figure 36. Detailed comparative view of the crest line from the largest sand wave south of Pasque Island. Note that the sand wave has migrated westward. Colored depths are from the 2004 survey; black depths and contours are from 1976; depths are in feet. Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 37.  Detailed comparative view of bedforms south of Pasque Island. Figure 37. Detailed comparative view of bedforms south of Pasque Island. Note that the sand waves have migrated, but direction and rate are uncertain. Colored depths are from the 2004 survey; black depths and contours are from 1976; depths are in feet. Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 38.  Detailed comparative view of the shoal off Fox Point on Pasque Island.  Note that the shoal has prograded seaward, but narrowed on its northeastern side. Figure 38. Detailed comparative view of the shoal off Fox Point on Pasque Island. Note that the shoal has prograded seaward, but narrowed on its northeastern side. Colored depths are from the 2004 survey; black depths and contours are from 1976; depths are in feet. Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 39. Detailed planar view of trawl marks north of Pasque Island from the sidescan sonar mosaic produced during NOAA survey H11076. Figure 39. Detailed planar view of trawl marks north of Pasque Island from the sidescan sonar mosaic produced during NOAA survey H11076. Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 40.  Detailed planar view of an anchor scar and trench north of Nashawena Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Figure 40. Detailed planar view of an anchor scar and trench north of Nashawena Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Note the change in orientation of the anchor scar probably caused by changing tidal or wind direction and the irregular border of the trench. Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 41.  Detailed planar view of anchor chain drop marks north of Pasque Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Figure 41. Detailed planar view of anchor chain drop marks north of Pasque Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 42. Detailed planar view of scour associated with a shipwreck in the large depression north of Quicks Hole from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Figure 42. Detailed planar view of scour associated with a shipwreck in the large depression north of Quicks Hole from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Scour depression asymmetry indicates that net transport is to the north (upper part of image). Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 43.  Detailed planar view of a scour depression associated with a shipwreck south of Pasque Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Figure 43. Detailed planar view of a scour depression associated with a shipwreck south of Pasque Island from the DTM produced during NOAA survey H11076. Location of view is shown in figure 22.
Figure 44.  Detailed planar view of a scour depression associated with a shipwreck south of Pasque Island from the sidescan sonar mosaic produced during NOAA survey H11076. Figure 44. Detailed planar view of a scour depression associated with a shipwreck south of Pasque Island from the sidescan sonar mosaic produced during NOAA survey H11076. High backscatter in the scour depression shows that coarser grained sediment is present there; scour asymmetry indicates that net transport is to the west. Location of view is shown in figure 22.

Skip past contents informationTitle | Introduction | Setting | Methods | Overview | Interpretation | Discussion | Data Catalog | Acknowledgments | References | Figures | Bottom Photographs | Sediment Data | Contacts

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